8 INTRODUCTION
 
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I went exploring through the passages. Up the east passage the muddy earth rose nearly to the roof, and we had to crawl through. At the south end of this there seemed to be no exit, but a slight gap under the S.E. trapdoor showed that there was a. way; and clearing out some earth I got in far enough to stick tight, and knocked the candle out. Matches had to be fetched, as we were streaming with the heat, so that nothing could be kept dry in the only garment I had on. Under the stone I got into the S.E chamber, and then the south passage was as nearly filled with mud that we had to lie flat and slide along it propelled by fingers and toes. At last I reached the S.W. chamber. The blind passage being level did not promise a way out; the lean lad got up on the top of the first trapdoor in an incredibly shallow space, but found no exit; then I slid down the narrow forced hole beneath the trapdoor, and waded through the water in the ante-chamber. There at last I found a passage sloping considerably upward, and knew that we were in the entrance passage. The way was worst of all here, as the ground was full of sharp crystals of sulphate of lime, and the walls lined with more crystals which cut like a knife. Scraping a clear way I squeezed up this passage as far as I could, and then began carefully measuring backward through all the passages to the tunnel, so as to know the position of the entrance.

8. While the men were clearing the ground outside I had the forced hole to the sepulchre enlarged a little, so that I could get in. There I spent three mornings in the water, searching the floor, besides employing three lads at it for some days. The chamber floor was covered with blocks, chips, and earth, which had fallen in , but the water was too deep to reach any- thing by the hand, and too salt and acrid to put eyes or nose beneath it. I therefore first cleared out the sarcophagi thoroughly, as they were shallower, and I could pick out everything by hand. And then the lads gradually picked up the stuff from the chamber, by shuffling it on to the broad blade of a native hoe with the foot, and so lifting up a little at a time. One on the sarcophagus then examined all that came up, and threw what was not wanted into the sarcophagi, so as to keep the sorted stuff from the unsorted. I promised half a piastre for every hieroglyph found, and a dollar for a cartouche. Within a day the cartouche was found on a bit of alabaster vase, Amenemhat III as I expected ; also many pieces of vases with inscriptions were found among the stuff, and one piece of lazuli cut in the form of a beard for inlaying. As I had found grams of burnt diorite in the sarcophagi, and charcoal, it was evident that the coffins had been of wood inlaid with polished stones. Still the question of the second sarcophagus was unsolved ; but it was distinctly an afterthought, built after the pyramid was built, when no larger blocks could be brought in, and yet before the death of Amenemhat III and his final interment. In the mass of blocks in the well chamber, however, a splendid table of offerings of alabaster was found (PL.V), and this was for a king's daughter, Ptahneferu. Besides this were found pieces of eight or nine alabaster bowls in the form of half a trussed duck, mostly inscribed for the same princess: these were generally about eighteen or twenty inches long, but the smallest was only eight inches. As the daughter of Amenemhat that we know of was named Sebek-neferu (the beauties of Sebek), it is just in accordance to find another daughter named - as this princess - Ptahneferu, though hitherto no trace of her had yet been discovered. She seems to have died young, before her father, and to have been buried side by side with him in his pyramid.

9. The finding of the entrance was a long task, as it was covered by a number of fallen blocks of stone. These had to be dragged out of the excavation; or, when too large to be removed, a hole was dug on one side, and they were rolled over into it. At last the doorway was found, more than twenty feet down; and then I set the gang to clear the passage by measure, supplying them with a boy at every three metres length cleared, to form a chain for passing the stuff out. Thus the agreement was simple, and the contract gang kept the chain of day-boys well up to the work. All the passages were cleared out down to the water level; but it was not desirable to go lower, as a dry path is required. Since I left the place I hear that both the tunnel entrance and the true entrance are choked ; but it will be easy for any one to reopen the mouth if a visit is desired.

10. The pyramid was not the only object which occupied a considerable time this year at Hawara. Last season I had opened dozens of tomb shafts, though but one of them at all rewarded the labour. That tomb, marked on the plan ("Hawara" Pl. XXV) as the tomb of Tet-bast-auf-ankh, furnished us with two sets of canopic jars carved in limestone, of fine work, and bearing long inscriptions. Several mummies were found in the chamber; but two which we opened appeared to be destitute of amulets or ornaments, and the remainder were therefore not


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