47 THE ANCIENT BOTANY.
 
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(3.) The jasmine (Jasminum sambac, L.), a native of India. It must have been introduced into Egypt prior to the time of the XXIst dynasty, as its flowers have been found among a few fragments of wreaths of that age preserved in the Natural History Museum of Milan (F. Woenig, "Die Pflanze im Alten Aegypten," p. 344). Three flowers alone occur in Mr. Petrie's collection.

(4.) A Nubian species of heliotrope (Heliotropium nubicum, L.). One wreath was found made entirely of the twigs of this plant bound together by strips of the leaves of the date-palm. It is still cultivated in the warmer regions of the Upper Nile for its flowers, which are intensely aromatic.

(5.) A species of convolvulus (Convolvulus spinosus, Burm.). This species, one flower of which was discovered, is now only found growing in Lower Belutchistan, in Affghanistan, and in the deserts of Southern Persia (Boissier, " Fl. Or.," vol. iv, p. 87).

(6.) A species of iris (Iris sibirica, L.). Two petals of this lovely plant were found bound into one of the sweet marjoram wreaths, and their blue colour when fresh must have contrasted admirably with the pale green of the marjoram twigs. The plant is a native of Northern Anatolia and of the Caucasus (Boissier, " Fl. Or.," vol. v, p. 126). It was known in Egypt as early as the times of Thothmes III, for a representation occurs of it among the plants depicted on the walls of that monarch's plant-chamber at Karnak. (See Mariette's Karnak," Pl. XXX.*)

(7.) The ivy (Hedera Helix, L.), a native of the South of Europe. It was introduced into Europe by the Greek colonists and is still cultivated in the gardens of Middle and Lower Egypt.

The remaining six species of "garland-plants" not included in my former list (see p. 53 of " Hawara, Biahmu, and Arsinoë") are all natives of Egypt They are: -

(1.) The white Egyptian water-lily (Nymphaea lotus, Hook.).

(2.) The common field-poppy (Papaver Rhaeas, L.). According to Dr. Schweinfurth this species is not found in Upper Egypt and also appears to be absent from the whole Nile Valley. It is, however, he says, still to be met with in abundance near Alexandria as a weed growing in cornfields. In ancient Egypt the plant seems to have had a wider distribution. Its flowers have been found by Dr. Schweinfurth in wreaths of the XXIst dynasty from Beir-el-Bahari, and its seeds have been detected among barley of the XIIh dynasty discovered at Kahun (see $91).

(3.) Conyza Dioscoridi, L., a plant belonging to the natural order Compositae and which still grows wild in abundance in the Fayûm.

(4.) Cressa cretica, L., a plant widely distributed in the East from Peloponnesus to Belutchistan (Boissier, "Fl. Or.," vol. iv, p. 114). Several wreaths were made entirely of the twigs of this species.

(5.) A species of Convolvulus (C. hystrix, Vahl.) which is still to be found growing in the Egyptian deserts.

(6.) A species of Euphorbia (E. aegyptiaca, Boiss.), widely distributed at the present day throughout Middle and Upper Egypt.

Several fruits, fruit-stones, and seeds, of species not included among the plant-remains found in 1888 have also been discovered by Mr. Petrie during the second season's excavations at Hawara. These are: - (1) Several seeds and fragment of leaves of the cabbage (Brassica oleracea, L.); (3) ten seeds of the Moringa aptera, Gaertn. ; (3) four fruits of the nebak-tree (Zizyphus spina-Christi, L.); (4) two pods and several seeds of the carob-tree (Ceratonia siliqua, L.) ; (5) a large quantity of lupins (Lupinus termis, Forsk.); (6) five flat peas (Lathyrus sativus, L.); (7) four almonds (Prunus amygdalus. Hook.); (8) three small fruits of the cherry (Prunus cerasus, L.); (9) several shrivelled fruits and leaves of the mulberry (Morus nigra, L.); (10) one hazel nut (Corylus avellanus, L.); (11) one onion (Allium cepa, L.). The first of these plants - the cabbage - was extensively cultivated in Egypt in Graeco-Roman times. Athenaeus (" Deipn.," I, i) tells us that among the Egyptians it was the custom to eat boiled cabbage before all the rest of their food, and the same author adds that they esteemed it as one of the most delicate of all the vegetables known in ancient times. The Moringa aptera, though probably a native of Egypt, was also cultivated in ancient times. Its seeds were collected and from them was extracted the Ben oil often mentioned in the old Egyptian chemical receipts. The occurrence of pods and seeds of the carob-tree are interesting, for Pliny (" H. N.," xiii, 16) says that the tree did not exist in Egypt, but grew abundantly in Syria and Ionia, "in the


* Over fifty species of plants are figured on the walls of the chamber of Thothmes III, and many of them are so exquisitely carved that there is no difficulty in determining the genus) and even in some cases the species, of plant represented. As Mariette's drawing, however, do not at all do justice to the original bas-reliefs, Mr. Petrie took in 1887, paper casts of the originals, and these he has placed in my hands for publication.

 

 

 


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