42 THE FOREIGNERS.
 
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On looking to the older town of Kahun, of the XIIth dynasty, the same evidence of the weights meets us there. Of eight weights, half are on the Egyptian standard, but not one is a pure Egyptian weight; of the forms two are rectangular, one a dome, another a disc ; of the materials two are alabaster and one limestone, only one being of hard stone; and of the multiples one is 30, one 12, and one four, none of these being Egyptian multiples.

Here then there is not a single regular Egyptian weight. Two weights occur of the Aeginetan standard, which is already known as far back as the XVIIIth dynasty, on a weight in the British Museum.

EGYPTIAN KAT (4)
No.MaterialFormPresentOriginalxUnit
4913Sandstone, br44 17675 120147.4
4914Alabaster 63-1662951.3 20147.6
4915Alabaster 15 151.8  1 151.8
4916Limestone 166-1712223522860150152.4
ASSYRIAN SHEKEL (1)
4917Limestone 62 3708 3760 30 125.3
ATTIC DRACHMA (1)
4918Syenite, gy 9 6878  10068.8
AEGINETAN STATER (2)
4919Limestone 54-669625 9670?50193.4
4920Limestone 171 12040  60200.7

No. 4914 has four strokes on it, showing a superunit of 5 kats. It will be seen how the Gurob weights are all of the light kat 141-144, only one being 147 ; whereas at Kahun the heavy kat, 147-I52, was in use: this shows a change, due to the period. Nos. 4916 and 4920 are both marked 30; one being of 30 super-units of 5 kats, like No. 4914; and the other 30 units of the double stater. Another weight found since I left Kahun is of 3960 or 20 Aeginetan staters of 198.

82. Two other traces of foreign intercourse occur at Kahun. The bluish marble of the Aegean is found in many examples there ; the only dated one that I know of before being a piece with the cartouches, of Usertesen I (Loftie Collection). And many pieces of the black pottery, like that found by M. Naville at Khatanah with scarabs of the Middle Kingdom, were scattered in different chambers of the town. Most of it is decorated with vandykes, filled alternately with a spot pattern impressed by a comb (XXVII, 202), some is plain (XXVIII, 201), and two pieces have incised designs (199. 200). This pottery is unknown in Egypt hitherto in any period but the XIIth and XIIIth dynasties; but it is the same as the black Italian pottery, which bears similar patterns. Moreover, the designs incised are certainly not of Egyptian work, but rather Babylonian in arrangement. Some Phoenician trader, therefore, we may suspect of importing such foreign pottery (probably Italian), and decorating it with designs copied from those of his Asiatic neighbours.

At Gurob the pottery at once arrests us by its completely foreign nature. In paste, in colour, in design it is indistinguishable from the earliest pottery found on Greek soil, at Mykenae, at Thera, and at Mitylene. The false-necked vases (XXVIII, 1, 7) are repeatedly found ; one (fig. 1) was taken by my own hands from the sand filling of a coffin (Tomb 23) which contained a yellow-haired person with black wig, and which, from the similar tombs around it, may be dated to 1300 B.C., as we have seen above. The other (7) was found in a house with a piece of wood carving of the early XIXth dynasty, and a blue glazed ring of the end of the XVIIIth dynasty, thus fixing it to just the same age. A similar one was found with scarabs, pottery, and an ushabti which requires us to date it to the beginning of the XIXth dynasty again. Others were found beneath the walls of a house probably built in the end of the XVIIIth dynasty; and also in a tomb with glass beads exactly like those found with a ring of Ramessu II in

 


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