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the jars were sealed up with mud stopping, but were quite empty.

Just inside the south wall of the town enclosure at Gurob were four bodies buried: they must have been placed there after that part was deserted, and before the wall had been effaced as it now has by denudation. From the style of the beads they appear to be of the time of Ramessu II. One had a necklace of blue and brown and green glass tube beads, short brown glazed pottery beads, blue and green glazed pottery Bes figures, and blue glazed pendant of Bast and monkey; the style of these pendants shows that they cannot be far removed from Khuenaten's period, but being coarser than his, the age of Ramessu II may be well assigned to them; earlier the town would not be deserted there, later the amulets would not be used. Another body had a necklace of blue and yellow tube beads of glass, and eyed pendant beads in black and white on a yellow body. Another body was unadorned. And the fourth had a wooden ushabti of Pa-ran-a.

In another tomb. In the cemetery behind the town, was the ivory duck box (XVIII, 10) , bronze mirror ; pair of alabaster ear-studs ; three split rings of carnelian ; and necklace of pale blue pendant beads, small blue beads, and carnelian beads. Probably of Ramessu II.

The series of objects found with a glass ring of Ramessu II have been already described all together (XXIV, 6 to 12). The sets of objects found with Greek pottery will be described in the chapter on the foreigners.



79. The presence of foreigners in the towns of Gurob and Kahun has been alluded to in the previous chapters, as a necessary element in dealing with the history of these settlements. But the details of their remains have been passed by, in order to give a connected view of the civilization shown to us by the XVIIIth and XIIth dynasties. Here we shall accept what has been stated already on the history of the towns, as shown by the dated Egyptian remains, and deal solely with the question of the foreigners in the district. At the time of Seti I - about 1300 B.C. - we have already noticed that a high official, the manager of the palace (or fa-khenf) in the Fayum, was named Anen-tursha (Pl. XIX). The name Tursha is followed by both the ethnic and the country determinatives, as the name of such people usually is; and we have therefore no hesitation in referring it to the Tursha race, the Turseni of Greek ethnology. Whether these were the Etruscans, as Lenormant, Chabas, and others have held ; or whether they were a race of Asia Minor, as Sayce and others believe; or whether we are to reconcile both of these views, in counting the Etruscans as the western branch, and the Turseni of Lemnos and the Dardanian region as the eastern part of the same race; whatever view we take of their exact position, it is certain that this man, Anen (or An, or Anu, as some would read it) the Tursha, was of the people who, allied with the Libyans, Akhaians and others, came into collision with Egypt in the Ramesside period. The name is formed, like many others known to us, with ethnic elements such as Pa-kfuxr the Syrian, Pa-nehesi the negro, &c. That such a man should hold high office, and be buried with all the honour and ceremony of a native Egyptian is not surprising. Foreigners were largely employed at the end of the XVIIIth and beginning of the XIXth dynasty; and in this particular region of the country they had settled, and were eating out the native population very seriously by the time when Merenptah entered on his great war of expulsion.

Another foreigner meets us at the same date, in the opposite grave of the same tomb as Anentursha's. Here an ushabti records the name of Sadi-amia; this is certainly not an Egyptian name, but twice in the Assyrian annals do we find this same word, Sadi, in the names of Hittites; Sadi-anteru, who was defeated by Tiglath Pileser at the same time as Kili-anteru, in Comagene; and Sadi-halis, conquered by Menuas in the north Euphrates district. We must therefore add the Hittite to the Tursha among the settlers at Gurob. At a later date, probably, we find at Illahun the three coffins, one inside the other, of another foreigner, named Iualhana, or Iualhan (XXV, 21, 22, 23), followed by the ethnic sign indicating a foreigner.

80. On turning, to personal characteristics, as well as the names, we see the evidence of foreigners. The face of the coffin of Anen-tursha (XIX) is far from Egyptian in the type of it: the long nose, and the close, slightly sloping eyes come from abroad ; further, the pierced ears do not belong to Egyptian men, nor is the piercing of the lower lobe an Egyptian custom, as their ornaments belonged to the outer or upper


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