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73. Beads were found like the scarabs, both in the work, and much more in the surface of the site, left by the denudation of the soil. These beads, though very varied in material and style, are so different to those of the XIIth dynasty from Kahun, that it is seldom, any example appears which could be confounded with those. If a mixture of the two series was made, not more than 1 or 2 per cent would be dubitable as to their origin. A difference was noticeable, moreover, between those found in the town founded over the temple ruins, and those in the external town to the north. From all the data I should conclude that the north town was founded when the temple was built, as a scarab from Amenhotep II was found there. Then the site of the temple became inhabited after its ruin, and objects of the Khuenaten time were the most usual there. The north town was partly deserted, and burials took place close to it, the tombs of Anen-tursha, Sadiamia, Res, and others being in that sand ridge. Early in the time of Ramessu apparently the town over the temple site was left, and the north town extended over the graves, as rings of Ramessu II are common there, and a great quantity of yellow glass beads which are unknown in the temple site, and therefore subsequent; moreover, a burial just within the wall of the temple site had a string of yellow glass beads, and this must have been when that part of the town was uninhabited. Then when the north town thus extended, graves were made more in the hill to the west, where great quantities of Ramesside ushabtis are found, and a ring of Ramessu II (XXIV, 10). We will therefore notice the beads in two divisions, those of the end of the XVIIIth and those of the beginning of the XIXth dynasty.

Among the beads of the XVIIIth dynasty glass is rare, and it is always opaque green, opaque violet, and opaque or transparent blue, light or dark. There is a great variety of glazed coloured pendants, in the form of various fruits and leaves: thistles, grapes, lotus, palm leaf, &c., usually in more than one colour; and the brilliancy and variety of the reds, blues, yellows, greens, and other tints is unrivalled at any other age. This style was a part of the great artistic revolution of Khuenaten, and died out under the XIXth dynasty entirely. Another speciality was the delicate pierced work of figures, cartouches, &c., in blue glazed pottery; this only lasted in a coarse form in the XIXth dynasty, though a revival in the very broad, thin, finger rings - sometimes three-quarters of an inch deep - occurred about the XXIInd dynasty. The thin, flat, blue disc beads, and the pendants of figures of gods - especially Bes - were introduced by Khuenaten also, and died out after becoming much coarser under Ramessu II. The very small and brilliant beads of glazed pottery, less than half a diameter in length, coloured red, yellow, green, and violet, belong essentially to the XVIIIth dynasty, and perhaps the beginning of the XIXth. The stone beads are almost all of opaque carnelian, and lotus pendants are common of the same stone.

On coming further down to the time of Ramessu II, the varieties which survive are all coarser and poorer. But a very great development of the glass beads took place. Instead of only plain green, violet, and blue, we find clear brown, opaque brown, and bright opaque yellow, which is common and characteristic. The designs also are very different. Instead of small cut figures for pendants, the eyed beads become general. The general type is a black spot, white ring, black ring, and then a general mass of yellow, blue, or black; the forms are either barrel beads or thick disc pendants, pierced through from edge to edge, and also through a loop on the top edge. Some of these eyed pendants are very small, but an eighth of an inch across, and others are found up to half an inch. Beside these are small blue globular or barrel beads with a white spot on each side, and sometimes a black middle to the white. Some disc beads have a blue body, white circle, and brick-red spot Another curious class of glass beads are short bugles, one to one and a half diameters long, of clear light green glass, coated around with opaque brick red. Glass earrings are found, of blue, yellow, or brown body, with a rim of twisted black and white attached or embedded. No example of the blue globular beads, with brown and white veining around the spots, has been found; these are probably of the XXVIth- XXXth dynasties.

The multiple beads are common. Those of conjoined tubes were used to insert in necklaces, particularly at the ends, to keep the several threads in order. Slips of pottery and bone pierced with a row of holes were used for the same purpose. The conjoined beads of several short ones in a line were made sometimes intentionally for threading to save the trouble of dealing with so many, being merely ribbed tubes; otherwise they are short beads left joined in manufacture, and not yet broken apart. The beads and amulets were actually made here, as several moulds for rings and amulets, and beads stuck together in the baking, were found.


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