36 MEDINET GUROB.
 
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A necklace of red and blue glass bugle beads accompanied one of the bodies here.

In the opposite chamber of the same tomb was the coffin of Anen-tursha. (Pl. XIX), apparently one of the foreign Tursha race, formerly identified with the Etruscans, but perhaps rather to be connected with the Turseni or Tyrrhenians of Lemnos and the Dardanian coast. The face is certainly non-Egyptian. In the same chamber was a coffin of one Nefer-mennu, and a tall, wooden box with sliding lid, inscribed for one Sunuro (XXIV, I), kept at Bulak.

70. In a tomb, the scribe's palette, with a figure of Hershef "king of the north and south," was found (XXIV, 5); the figures had been sketched with an able and firm hand by the scribe, in a leisure hour, on the back of his palette. Another scribe's palette with six ink holes (XVIII, 13) is just a cubit in length, like one already known, the pen slit being at the half-cubit ; the length of the halves is 10.27 and 10.34, total 20.61 inches.

A very curious group of figures from a tomb is in Pl. XXIV, 6 to 12. These are absolutely dated by a glass ring of Ramessu II, which, by its good style and transparency is probably early in his reign. Some years ago I bought in Cairo a steatite triad of Roman age, consisting of Isis, a so-called "Canopic" figure, and Horus with his finger to his mouth. This almost proved these canopic figures, known on the Alexandrian coinage, to be of Osiris. Here we have such a figure (XXIV, 7) in the characteristic Ramesside black limestone; and inscribed Asar, proving the Osiride nature of such figures, and also the antiquity of the idea. Does this represent the heart of Osiris ? or is it a jar in which his scattered remains were collected by Isis? Perhaps rather the heart, as a very similar figure (XXIV, 8) accompanies it, made of blue-violet porcelain with green inlay. With these there were sixty or seventy ushabti figures (XXIV, 11) in violet and green glazed pottery ; having cross holes and vertical holes also, these were probably threaded in a kind of rectangular pectoral, like the mimusops leaves.

71. Some remarkable examples of bronze work were found. At the north end of the town, among the almost denuded remains of houses were two scarabs (XXIII, 7, 8) and a bronze jug (XVIII, 26) which is thus dated to the time of Amenhotep II, or a little later. It is of a form seldom, if ever, found ; the handle is made from a strip of wrought bronze, bent into shape, and attached in the casting of the jug. The thinness is so uniform that it must have been cast by the cire perdue method; though now entirely rusted to oxide and carbonate of copper, the metal may be estimated at certainly not more than 1/20 inch thick originally. The breakages which it has suffered are not noticed in the drawing. In the town we found, beneath a rubbish-heap piled against a wall, two bronze pans, one 9 and the other 14 inches across. They were placed one in the other, the face of the larger against the wall ; and thus only the bottom of the large pan was in contact with the earth. The result is that the greater part of the surface has retained the original polish of the metal, just as when buried. So perfect is the metallic state that either pan can be buckled in and out by the thumb and finger as if new. The workmanship is masterly ; the bottom almost flat with a raised ring beaten up around the centre; and the side rising with a graceful swell and a stiff edge, about 1½ inches high. The handles are of lotus pattern, admirably formed, and riveted on with round-head rivets. Each pan is inscribed, the two inscriptions being given in Pl. XIX, bottom: both of the pans were kept at Bulak. A finely-formed bronze strainer found in the town was also kept at Bulak.

Of papyri a few were found, but none in such fine state as those of Kahun. The only royal name is that of Ramessu II. None of the rolls were sealed, and many were crushed up as waste paper.

72. A considerable number of scarabs and rings were discovered in the work, and still more in the searching of the surface of the whole site by the children of the village. All of these - excepting duplicates of the rings - are drawn on Pl.XXIII. Those with names are placed in historical order in the left-hand half of the plate; among them No. 8 is included, being found with 7; 15 is apparently of Khuenaten by the crouching attitude of the king, as on a glass ring (Historical Scarabs 1331); and 51 and 52 are evidently of Ramessu II by their style. On the undated, right-hand, side the scarabs are placed in chronological order by their style. The dates approximately are 55 Hyksos ; 56-59 Amenhotep I ; 60, 61, Tahutmes I ; 62-63 Tahutmes III; 64-8 Amenhotep II ; 69-73 Tahutmes IV; 74-89 Amenhotep III; 90-96 Amenhotep IV; 97 Tutankhamen ; 98-99 Horemheb ; 100-2 Seti I ; 103-113 Ramessu II ; 114-117 probably chance examples of about XXIInd dynasty, perhaps not from Gurob, as they were bought. These attributions cannot, of course, be reckoned as certain ; but they are probably correct within one reign either way.

 


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