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The coarser and poorer pottery was found in the town, shown on Pl.XX; while the finer portions (Pl.XXI) are from the cemetery. The numbers at the lower right-hand corners of the vases show the number of the find or tomb from which they come. It should be noted that the concentric band decoration belongs to the XVIIIth-XIXth dynasties ; while the collar decoration on one side appears to develop in the XXth dynasty. None of the latter is found here.

67. Turning to the tools employed in this age, we see that a complete change has passed over the country. In the XIIth dynasty flint chipping was an art, highly skilled, producing on the fine, translucent material very beautiful work (Pl.XVI) ; and, though influenced by the forms of bronze tools, yet far commoner than metal work. In the XVIIIth dynasty all this is reversed. Very few flints at all appear; what there are show unskilled work on poor material (Pl.XVI). The art was expiring. Whereas bronze tools had emerged from the stage in which flat-backed knives were made - such as we see on all the early sculptures - and the double-edged blades, well known in the Ramesside times, are the completely-established type (XVII, 28 - 33). The forms of the chisels had also been modified. The flat head of No. 4 has always a notch later on, Nos. 23, 25, as if to give it a better seat in the handle (such as No. 22) and prevent the wood splitting so readily. The thin, flat chisel (No. 26), which was made to be bound on the sotep handle (IX, 15), has a much deeper cut at the head than the earlier form, No. 5. The hatchets, 27, 28, have longer backs, less carefully wrought, and are deeper in proportion than the early ones, 6 and 9. The fish-hooks are more rough, and not well barbed like the early ones. The knives are all double-edged and rounded at the end ; except the peculiar one with a bent handle in the form of a gazelle's leg, cast in one piece with the blade: this, No. 32, and another No. 31, are now in the Bulak Museum. Other tools also appear for the first time in the XVIIIth dynasty. The rasps (36), which are in principle the same as the iron rasps of the XXVIth dynasty, being formed of a sheet of metal, punched and coiled round into a cone. The strange knives, No. 42, the purpose of which is unknown, and the stranger knives with a hinging pointed piece on the back, No. 43, are both well known at Thebes, but hitherto were undated. The bronze arrow and lance heads, 37, 28, also appear for the first time; in the XIIth dynasty probably flint was used, and in the XXVIth dynasty the socketed type with three edges had nearly superseded these. The bronze nails, 34, and 35 with a washer on the end of it, are like those of Tel el Amarna, but unknown earlier; and the bronze kohl stick is also new here, and probably came into use with the tubular kohl pots, which were unknown in the XIIth dynasty. Bow-drills are found of the same type as in the XIIth dynasty (XVIII, 14). A piece of a cubit of wood was found in the town 1.2 wide, 0.6 thick, and with one edge bevelled. It is much worn, and was originally made from a piece of furniture, the pegs of which remain in it. There remain four palm spaces and a half space; the spaces from the butt-end are 3.02, 3.07, 3.07, 2.90, and 1.65 inches. Omitting the last, which from its excess is probably a rough half, and the butt-end which is probably less accurate, the palm averages 3.01, and the cubit of seven palms would be 21.09, which is remarkably long. Three balance beams are 9.9, and 16½ inches long, the holes for the pan-cords being as in modern Arab beams, but only the longer has a middle hole.

68. In spinning and weaving there are some changes since the XIIth dynasty. The spindles are of a different type. The whorls being thinner and wider in general (XVIII, 24), or else of the new conical form (XVIII, 22, 23). The groove for the thread is also altered, being only a short portion of a spiral ending in a turn-up notch, or even a notch alone. This, again, gave way in Roman times to a little hook of bronze or iron stuck into the top of the spindle stem. The thread is very fine, not more than 1/200th of an inch thick sometimes, and also very even. Some of it is dyed blue, some dark red. The string found in balls and also used for nets is of odd numbers of strands, three or five. Nets were made for fishing as of old time, but not so varied in size, the mesh being 0.4 to 0.6 square, and of thicker string. The netting was done by means of bone needles (XVIII, 20, 21), which are very common. The reels of black clay (27, 28) may also have been used for netting. Netting needles with clip ends were rare: but one very fine large one, with the clips at right angles one to the other, was found, and is now at Bulak. The sinkers used for the fishing nets were of lead (XVIII, 18) or of water-worn bits of hard limestone with natural holes (XVIII, 19). Of woven stuffs the texture was very dose and regular. Two sleeves of a child's jacket were found. quite new and unused, in the clean sand filling of a tomb of the XIXth dynasty (Tomb 25, see vase


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