32 THE CIVILIZATION OF THE XIITH DYNASTY - KAHUN.
 
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XVIIth or beginning of the XVIIIth dynasty. The scarab 78 is of the style of those of the XIIIth dynasty and Hyksos time, and the dark blue glaze of it is like that of the same age: No. 79 is of a dark violet glass, and reading set-nub is probably of Hyksos time; No. 80 is of uncertain age; No. 81 is the latest looking object, as it is of violet pottery inlaid with white, like the work of Khuenaten's time. A spirited hunting scene, engraved on a wooden cup, was with these ; it is now at Bulak. The other burials of the XVIIIth dynasty had the scarabs 74, 75, and 76 accompanying them.

Another late burial, of great value to us, had the bodies wrapped in rushes, and accompanied by two scarabs Of the style of the time of Amenhotep II or Tahutmes IV (XXIII, 66, 67) ; with these were a bit of blue painted pottery, a smooth white jar, like that of the end of the XVIIIth dynasty at Tel el Amarna, and an ushabti of wood of perhaps the beginning of the XIXth dynasty. Hence the whole burial maybe dated to the time of Seti I with tolerable closeness. With these were two wooden head-rests with fluted stems, a false-necked vase of the early Mykenae type, and a blue glass vase with yellow lines, usually called Phoenician. Hence these objects are closely dated, the age agreeing with that of other examples of each found at Gurob.

Another late burial, from the style of the yellow-faced coffin heads, and a head-rest of wood, I should date to about the XXth dynasty. With this was a wooden rake of 12 teeth, and a spindle of the Ramesside type; also two wooden reels 2.8 across, with a central spot and five others around it, inlaid with ivory ; part of a strong sieve of rush ; a strange piece of woodwork of unknown use, like that in (VIII, 18) but ending in a swelling out of the stem ; a stick, 25 inches long, with a knob at one end, and a hole through the other, use unknown; and an ostrich egg 6.1 long, 5.2 diameter, which had been attached to a handle of wood; this handle is 5.2 long, 1.6 wide at the end, tapering to .8 in the middle and expanding to 1.8 at the shell; it is turned hollow, ending in trumpet mouth, and painted green inside and out; it was attached to the egg by an oval knob which went through a hole in the end of the egg, and was keyed in place by turning quarter round, and so catching the shell in grooves under the knob. What can have been the ceremonial or other use of such an egg and handle we do not yet know; but that it was valued is evident from it having been broken some time before its burial (as shown by the flymarks on certain pieces) and having been nevertheless carefully interred.

In Roman times the town was dug into for limestone, and in one part about the middle there is much slag lying about and some late Roman pottery on the surface. A coin of Theodosius picked up here shows the age of this disturbance.

CHAPTER IV.

MEDINET GUROB.

64. At Kahun, the town of the XIIth dynasty, the history is comprised within about a century ; special causes having led to the foundation of the town, it fell into decay when no longer required.

At the other town, Medinet Gurob, on the opposite side of the Fayum mouth, we can trace a history almost as brief. As at Kahun, the rise of the town may be very closely dated, and we may probably fix the time of its fall almost to a year. Its history covers the end of the XVIIIth dynasty and the beginning of the XIXth, as will be seen in the chronology on PI. XXIV.

Until the time of Tahutmes III the edge of the desert along this district appears to have been bare and uninhabited. For some unknown reason, probably in consequence of some works executed by Tahutmes at the Fayum dyke, he erected here a temple of some considerable size. Rows of pedestals of columns yet remain to show its former extent, and one piece of the sculpture (Pl. XXII ,2) gives the king's name ; another block bearing his name was also found two or three years ago in this town. Doubtless some dwellings also existed here for the workmen, and a town had sprung up, but there is little evidence of that ; and - common as the scarabs of Tahutmes III usually are - only six have been found in this locality, no disproportionate number to the length of his reign. The early town lay probably outside of the temple enclosure, away on the north continuation of the desert edge ; as, about a quarter of a mile to the north, we found a bronze jar (XVIII, 36) and two scarabs (XXIII, 7, 8), one of which is of Amenhotep III. Under the succeeding kings the site seems to have still been inhabited, as we find a plaque of Tahutmes IV (XXII 1, 9), and rings and scarabs of Amenhotep III (XXIII, 10 to 14) as well as a kohl vase in ivory with the cartouches of Amenhotep III and his daughter Aset, now at Bulak. We find next that the temple of Tahutmes III was entirely ruined, and removed (all

 


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