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dynasties will be noticed on the plate. Other carpenters' tools are the socket drills to be worked by a bow (IX, 28), and the adze handle (IX, 13) familiar to us in hieroglyphs and paintings. Several door bolts were also found (IX, 21) ; some with a groove along the edge. The mallets are of two forms. The club mallet (IX, 2) is that shown on the early tombs as used by carpenters; while the headed mallet (IX, 4) is the type of later times. We now see that the XIIth dynasty was the time when the form changed.

47. Of masons' tools probably the bronze chisels are examples ; but one other very interesting article was found among the foundation blocks of the temple of Usertesen, and had been probably left by his masons, as those of Ramessu II would not have troubled themselves to dress on the spot the stones they removed. I had pointed out long ago ("Journal Anthropological Inst," 1883, Aug.) that the Egyptian method of facing a stone true was by running flat drafts along the edges, and then holding an offset piece on the draft of each side with a string stretched from one to the other; while the trimmer held an offset piece of the same length on the face of the stone, and so saw against the stretched string what excess had to be removed. This was my conclusion from a painting at Thebes. Here, at Kahun, we found the very articles, three flat ended sticks of wood, two of them with holes to insert a string, and the other plain (Pl. IX, 13). But for noticing the painting beforehand, these could scarcely have been understood. Their lengths are 4.98 inches, equal within two or three thousandths of an inch : diameter .6 to .7 inch. One stick of a smaller set was found, 2.80 long (palm of four digits of .72, less than one seventh of cubit) and .42 diameter.

48. Of measures three were found at Kahun. But not one of these was the usual Egyptian cubit. One is a bar of wood of the usual form for a cubit, 3.15 wide, 1.6 thick, and one edge bevelled off to a breadth of .9, on which the cuts are marked. It bears cuts dividing it into six palms, being thus the short cubit of which no other example has yet been found. One end extends beyond the last cut by .11. The cuts are slightly askew, but very parallel. The successive palm spaces after the end surplus of .11 are 2.95,2.97, 3.03, 2.91, 2.96, and 2.78 to the end, which is much decayed and only retains a small part of the original face. From these (properly weighted) the mean palm would be 2.965 agreeing to a cubit of 20.75 inches; or the total length is 17.71 which + the average palm would be a cubit of 20.67. Hence, though this is 6 instead of 7 palms, the length is exactly in agreement to the usual Egyptian standard. Two other measures were found on slips of wood ; but both are very rough, and possibly merely arbitrary scales made for some temporary purpose. One scale has seven divisions, but much larger than the regular palm; possibly it was made roughly from a broad hand. The spaces are 3.41, 4.47, 3.64, 3.53, 3.07,4.08, and 4.23 inches, total 26.43 inches. There is also a mark near the middle at 12.74. The mean value of the spaces, weighted, and excluding the ends which are worn, is 3.63 inches. It is possible that this is connected with the 13.2 inch unit which is already known to have been in Asia Minor, and which may have been introduced by the foreign settlers at Kahun; this measure is divided into two parts averaging 13.2 each, and the seven divisions may have been put on in imitation of the Egyptian cubit of 7 palms. The other scale is of 7½ spaces, the end one being half the length of the others. Their lengths are .84, 1.34, 1.06, 1.08, .86, 1.05, 1.03, and .52. The weighted mean of the cut spaces is 1.04, and this may be the decimal division of the cubit, 1.04 x 20 = 20.8, as this decimal form is already known on Egyptian monuments.

49. In the production of clothing and thread these people were not at all behindhand. The spindles used for making the linen and woollen thread are very common ; their usual type is seen in Pl. IX, 26, the size varying from 7 to 15 inches long. The main differences from spindles of the XVIIIth dynasty is the greater depth of the whorl, and the long spiral groove for the thread at the top. These were used like the modern Arab spindles, most probably; the bunch of raw material after carding is loosely bound round the distaff, which is carried tucked under the left arm, the left hand controls the supply of fibre, dragging it out of the loose mass ; the fibre as spun into thread is wound on the spindle below the whorl, and passes up the side of the whorl and through the groove at the top (a hook in the modern form) which prevents its unwinding. Then the right hand lays hold of the bottom of the spindle, and giving it a rapid spin between finger and thumb it is dropped, dangling by the thread from its top. While it continues spinning both hands are actively employed in dragging out the fibre (which comes off the distaff) into an equable thinness, which as it passes through the right fingers is immediately twisted into thread by the rotating spindle which hangs from it. As


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