19 THE PYRAMID OF HAWARA.
 
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great sarcophagus of Horuta, with recesses for the ushabtis on each side of it; the whole chamber having been filled up with masonry, almost flush with the side of the long chamber. On the south side of the well is another chamber, which contained several bodies, broken.

In the following descriptions of the positions of the amulets the materials are marked by letters, to avoid repetition. B, beryl ; C, carnelian ; D, diorite; F. green felspar ; G, gold ; H, haematite; J, jasper ; K, limestone: L, lazuli; N, black limestone; 0, obsidian ; P, pottery glazed ; S, silver; Y, yellow limestone.

29. The sarcophagus of Horuta is of very hard, tough, browny white limestone; the lid is roughly formed and hollowed away a few inches beneath, its whole thickness being about two feet On each side of the sarcophagus a recess was built in the masonry which surrounded it; these recesses, or boxes, were about 3 feet long, 2 feet wide, and 18 inches deep. In the southern recess were 203 ushabtis, all standing on end, arranged in 11 files and 18 ranks, the backmost rank being of larger size than the others: they slightly leaned back, facing north, to the sarcophagus. In the north recess were 196 similar ushabtis, two being only broken halves, making 399 in all: these stood in 5 files and 11 ranks sideways to the sarcophagus facing west, and a beginning of 9 files and 10 ranks facing south, but much confused in their order. The placers had probably begun from the back of the recess, and intended them all to face to the sarcophagus, like those in the south recess; but becoming confused in the order, they had changed it, and put the remainder in a fresh manner leaning back on the east side. The lower part of the figures was buried in a bed of sand, and over that the mortar had run in during the building. They were thus so firmly fixed that even with great care, several were broken in extracting them. The water which had risen and filled the tomb, had unfortunately discoloured nearly all the figures, decomposing the blue-green glaze to white. After soaking them in several changes of water for many days, to extract the salt, I then sorted them all according to workmanship, and so determined that seventeen different styles existed in this one lot Probably these represent the work of as many different men, as every figure is entirely hand modelled, both features, tools and inscription. If then the work had been given out to many different workshops, the examples of each style would be in round numbers; but if made all in a single factory each man would work on until the whole number was complete. The latter is the case, for the numbers are, - large ones (different styles) 15 ; finest 8; fine, curved lips, 29 ; fair, straight lips, wiry tie to hoe, 18; good, prognathous, split tie to hoe, 17 ; short, broad faces, fair, 13 ; same, poor, 14 ; flat faces, fair, 45 ; square face, narrow hoe, 29 , small head, poor detail, 37 ; same, clumsy detail, 7 ; same thrown back, 25 ; wide-top head, 49 ; flat face, brown specks, 11 ; poor work, olivy colour, 35 ; poorer, smaller, 42 ; rough, 5. It therefore seems that these were made by different workmen all in one factory. The order has been for 400; one was lost before burial, and several were injured by rough handling then. The work of the finer ones is of the very best class, and even the bad ones are better than the average of such objects. Inside the sarcophagus were three wooden coffins, one inside the other. These were bedded firmly in sand, which covered over them, and a layer of Chian turpentine was poured over the whole before the stone lid was let down. In the corners of the stone sarcophagus stood four alabaster canopic jars, of which the inscriptions are given in Pl. XXIV, 28 to 31. The jar 28 with the human head of Amset and the speech of Isis was south of the head; 29, with the ape head of Hapi, and speech of Nebhat, was north of the head; 30, with the hawk head of Kebhsenuf, and speech of Selk was north of the feet ; and 31,with the Jackal head of Tuatmautf, and speech of Neit was south of the feet. The jars were bedded in the sand which filled the sarcophagus, and were quite empty when found, excepting sand and water; they were therefore not actually used for parts of the body.

30. The first coffin was of soft wood a good deal rotted. The next was of hard aromatic wood, the essential oil of which had permeated the whole tomb and given a characteristic smell to everything in it ; the face is finely carved, and was removed, but there was no carving elsewhere on it, or inscription. The inner coffin was very thin and rotten. On the second coffin were six tats, Isis and Horus in pottery, and a rising sun, J ; there may have been a few others which were lost down in the water during the work. The mummy had a gilt face modelled on its outer wrapping, with inlaid stone eyes, and a wig of sheet silver gilt in alternate stripes; as this was covered with a coat of pitch, it was not perceived at first, and became broken up in the difficult work of extracting the lids. Over the mummy lay a network of long and short beads ; these were in rows of lazuli, beryl, and silver -

 


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