18 TOMBS OF HAWARA.
 
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apparently soon reached ; but on examining it I found that it was only formed of large blocks of the soft sand-rock hardened by sulphate of lime, which had been thrown in: on cutting through these we went down twenty-five feet before finding the real rock, about the position of the man in (PI.VII, 1). Seeing that this sloped downward toward the chapel we cleared it some way; but afterwards, leaving this cutting, we sank another pit nearer the chapel, skirting down the edge of the rock, and so reached the top of the entrance to the sepulchre at twenty-five feet down. Inside it was partly filled with sand which had run in, but the chamber at the bottom was nearly empty, with some black mud and water on the floor, and the bones of a boy who had somehow met his end here. This lower chamber has evidently been lined with fine stone, and it lies exactly under the chapel on the surface. A ledge along the E. side leads to a long, low chamber at a higher level in which lay some late burials in wooden coffins, probably of the XXth - XXVIth dynasty.

On attacking the other tombs they proved to be on two systems; some with a long sloping entrance, such as VII, l, and others with a well entrance, from which the passage sloped down in the rock. The parts were usually (1) a well or sloping trench ; (2) a passage in the rock; (3) an antechamber wider above than the passage, but having two level ledges along the sides, so that the floor width is a continuation of the passage ; (4) the sepulchre, sometimes lined with stone, sometimes plain rock; (5) the sarcophagus, with sides plain, sometimes of limestone, with a lid like that of Amenemhat III in the pyramid, and torus edges, as in (VII,4), sometimes of massive sandstone, roughly formed outside, as in (VII, 6), sometimes of polished sandstone with engraved inscription, of which fragments were found. These chapels and tombs had all been destroyed at an early date for the sake of the stone. The only fragments of sculpture which remain are occasional blocks of the chapels, which have fallen down the tomb wells and not been drawn out again. In this way three blocks of the tomb (VII, 10) of Ameni-senb-nebuu (XI, 2, 3, 4) were found ; he was an official of the temple at Kahun, for we see just over his head the lower part of the hieroglyph of a building belonging to Semutaui the ka of Usertesen II. In another well (VII, 5) were two blocks of the tomb of Ranefankh, one with inscription (XI, 9) and one with his figure, seated. In the wells of tomb VII, 4 were the blocks XI, 3, 6, and 7 together. From these we can form an idea of the fine work of these great chapels, which were grouped together ID the desert plain. The general plan is much like that of the Apis tomb of the XVIIIth dynasty still existing at Sakkara, At a later date these tombs were used for burials in wooden coffins, probably between the XXth and XXVIth dynasties. Most of these had perished by the damp and exposure to air, but two finely cut inscriptions in wood were preserved, XXV, 20 on the outside and XXV, 13 on the inside coffin of one burial. After these burials were rifled, and the tombs filled with sand, innumerable crocodiles were buried in the ground around, and in the sand filling of the wells, probably in the Ptolemaic times.

28. About the end of the XXVIth dynasty, judging by the style of the remains, a large tomb was excavated, marked as "Tomb well of Tet-bast-auf-ankh" in the plan Pl.XXV, "Hawara." The well of this is forty feet deep, and the chambers extend more than fifty feet in the rock (VII, 11). When I opened the well last season, the canopic jars for two men, both named Tet-bast-auf-ankh were found standing in the recess just east of Ra-n-ma's chamber: and on raising two of the mummies that were in the place, and examining them we found no amulets. I therefore did not go down, not having a rope ladder at the time. This season I determined to examine it, and on reopening the well the first mummy examined, that of Ra-n-ma, contained amulets. The actual events of this work I have already described in the Introduction, so I shall only here state the details of the tombs.

The canopic jars found last year had probably been taken from some bodies, and brought to the chamber entrance for removal ; they most likely belong to the outer of the two sarcophagi at the end of the chamber, and a body in the chamber of Ra-n-ma: but several other bodies and wooden coffins were floating about in the water in the chamber. The construction of the tomb was a well, down which the sarcophagi were lowered endways; then next a doorway, built up at the sides after the sarcophagi were taken in, the built parts being marked with cross shade in the plan: then a long chamber, divided in two parts by a wall, in which a doorway had formerly been closed by a wooden door. On the south of the chamber is a recess not as low as the floor, and a chamber next to it, rather lower, containing one stone sarcophagus, of a man Ra-n-ma, identified by his finger ring. At the end of the long chamber are two sarcophagi, one for a man, and the further one for a girl. On the north of the long chamber is another in which stands the

 


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