12 THE PYRAMID OF HAWARA
 
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statues and granite work had been carried away whole.

In the town of Kahun I began by clearing all the rooms of one block of houses along the street front, and emptying them on to the street; then the rooms further in were cleared and the earth thrown back into the rooms already cleared next to the street. Thus the buildings are mostly filled up again, so as to prevent the decay and destruction of the brick walls, while every object was certain to be uncovered. The floors of the chambers were always sounded all over with a rod, to see if there were any pits or hollows filled up. Continually objects, or babies, were found buried thus , and I always was certain of searching the places myself, as the men could not fill up the rooms without inspection, because no pay could be had until I had measured the emptied chamber. The price for this clearing in light rubbish was half a piastre the cubic metre, or a little under a penny a yard: of course there was extra money for everything found, papyri or bronze tools being specially well paid for. Every chamber, when gauged for payment, was accurately measured, and marked in on the current plans which I kept in my notebook. From these plans, aided by a triangulation, the general plan of a corner of the town and the temple site is here given in PL. XV. Much more was cleared and measured than is here shown, but the plans of other parts are yet incomplete and require more work next season.

16. I should not omit to say that owing to the need of returning to Egypt within three months (in order to keep dealers and plunderers out of my work), I have had very short time for the arrangement of all the collections of this year for exhibition, drawing the plates in this volume, writing all the account, and attending to the innumerable small affairs which such business entails. Hence I have omitted all notice of the tombs of the later times at Illahun and Gurob, which I hope to fully describe in my next volume. In that I expect to include an account of the Greek papyri from Professor Sayce, and of the hieratic and Coptic by other friends. My best thanks are due to Mr. Marshall Hewat for his constant kindness and help, without which I should be often in difficulties. I had with me for some months Maurice, the son of my dear friend the late Professor Sheldon Amos, and with his knowledge of Arabic he was able to look after the work on occasions. When I left Egypt I was so fortunate as to be able to place the sites in charge of Mr. George Fraser, who was disengaged for three months, and could live on the spot. Among other work, he cleared a well which I had begun by the pyramid of Illahun, and so entered the pyramid by a sort of back door. A full account of it will appear next year. I am indebted to Emil Brugsch Bey for the photographs of the frontispiece. In the matter of dealing with the large collections I have had the greatest help from Mr. Spurrell, who has also done some drawings, and has taken charge of the collections to disperse them, after my leaving England; also Mr. Percy Newberry has prepared all the plants, and is engaged in mounting the papyri, besides giving much assistance in other matters. A new friend has joined the work, Mr. W. O. Hughes-Hughes, who has laboured heartily on the preparation of the collections, and will shortly join me in Egypt. Miss Bradbury has again taken in hand the textiles, and for the larger and more important pieces has obtained the careful help of Mr. Wardle, and of Messrs. Pullar. My old friend Mr. F. LL Griffith is devoting his spare hours to mounting and reading the hieratic papyri ; and I hope that Professor Sayce will work out the Greek papyri during the winter. But for such a circle of friends it would be utterly impossible for me to leave my proceeds of one season so soon, to go and attack fresh ground.

I should say that the title of this volume does not follow the order of the contents, in order to obtain the name of Kahun first, to distinguish it from last year's volume on Hawara. If any question is asked about my authority for the chronology followed here, I can only say that I have followed what seem to be the best data: - the VIth dynasty as fixed by the close of the inundation in the inscription of Una, and the XVIII-XIXth dynasty as fixed by three Sirius festivals of Tahutmes III, Ramessu II, and Merenptah, which are concordant. The XIIth dynasty is fixed by dead reckoning between the VIth and XVIIIth.

CHAPTER 1.

THE PYRAMID OF HAWARA.

17. As the operations of opening this pyramid have been fully described in the Introduction, we shall only treat here of the construction of the pyramid as far as it can now be ascertained. The site of it is on a spur or corner of the limestone plateau of the desert, forming one side of the mouth of the shallow depression which leads into the Fayum.

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