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of smoke when the harvest came on, and not a. man could I get to do anything. The six week work however sufficed to clear up the history of Tell Hesy, and - still better - to form a series of dated pottery of the various periods, so laying a foundation for future explorations on a scientific basis. The results of this work having been published by the Palestine Exploration Fund, I need not enter on them here. After thus obtaining a chronological scale I spent a fortnight in visiting various ancient sites, and identifying the periods of the remains from the pottery strewn over them.

3. The costs of the excavations described in this volume have been defrayed by my friends Mr. Jesse Haworth and Mr. Martyn Kennard, in continuation of their liberal assistance of the work which I carried on during two previous years in the Fayum; and the greater part of the objects found have been presented by them or myself to various public museums. While I was absent in England the inspector- ship of the Fayum had been transferred to Major Brown, R.E.; but he very kindly permitted me to continue to use the inspection house at Illahun, as Mr. Hewat had done; when so much was being discovered it was most needful to have a lodgement for the antiquities, and but for the use of such a house the work would have been much hindered. After I had worked during October at Kahun) Mr. W. 0. Hughes-Hughes came out in November to take up the excavation of Gurob; I could not possibly have attended to this in the time available before I went to Palestine, and it was therefore very- fortunate that some regular work could be carried on before the natives finally plundered the place. Of course no sort of guardianship or protection was given by the Government, and it was only by paying guards myself that I could preserve the site until Mr. Hughes-Hughes came. So soon as he left the rest of the town and tombs utterly perished at the hands of the plunderers. We are therefore indebted to his attention for rescuing most of the information on this site which is in the present volume.

Again I am fortunate in having the collaboration of several friends on special chapters here. Prof. Sayce renews his attention to Greek papyri, and Prof. Mahaffy has joined on the subject Mr. Griffith has begun a study of the series of hieratic papyri: and the demotic will I hope be worked out by Dr. Hess. Canon Hicks has given his special knowledge to the Ptolemais inscription, and Mr. Spurrell has elucidated much about the use of flint implements, with his wide information on the subject. To all these friends my sincerest thanks are due for attending to what neither my own time or studies permitted me to take up.


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