5 THE PYRAMIDS OF ILLAHUN
 
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its rock base, and cleared it all round. A shrine had existed on the north side of it, and we found fragments of the painted walls like those of the shrine and of the temple of Usertesen. Also a fragment of an altar of offerings of black granite, but unfortunately no name remaining on it. (PL. XII, 8.) Among the fragments of the shrine was one which gives apparently part of the name (XII, 6), mentioning a "princess of both lands, Atmu....."; as other princesses of this dynasty have the names of gods compounded with neferu, Sebeknefru, Ptahnefru, &c., this princess may be provisionally named Atmunefru. I tried hard to find the entrance to the pyramid ; not only was all the top and edge of the rock core examined, but I also cleared the rock bed of the pavement all around the whole pyramid, for about twenty feet out from the core, but without hitting on the passage. Probably there is a well at some distance away from the pyramid, as in the pyramid of Usertesen. The rock base is about eighty feet square; and the cutting which marks the extent of the casing, is distant from the rock from 75 to 86 inches. The rock core is distant from the north wall 296, from the wall on the west 246, and from the edge of the pavement hollow on the west 186 to 199. All of this breadth was examined. The only result of the clearance was to find several pits cut in the rock beneath the casing, containing foundation deposits. The most important was at the N.E. corner. Here was a square hole whose corner was 4 ins. N. of N. side and 13 E. of E. side of the rock core. The hole was 36 square at top to receive a. slab of stone i inches thick; below that it was 28 square, for a. depth of 60 inches. This was filled with clean sand, and near the bottom lay fragments of many vases and saucers (PL. IV, 1 to 6, 9,10, 14), with a model brick of mud (13), a few green glazed beads (12), and bones of a calf sacrificed. Of course our hopes were high that we had at last found the entrance to the pyramid, on removing this slab and finding sand filling below it; but the bottom of the hole was all solid rock. At the N.W. comer another hole was found, very similar to this: the inner corner is 16 W. of W. side, and 9 S. of N. side, thus not lying in the diagonal. The depth is 7 inches and 53 below that; and it is 35 square above and 30 below. Another rock pit was found at 100 to 130 E. of the W. side, and 160 to 190 N. of the N. side. This contained nothing but sand. And a fourth pit was found opposite the middle of the west side, which contained only one rough vase and saucer. These last two were covered over with mortar, and not with stone. Another pit on the east side had been emptied anciently, and forced at the side toward the pyramid. Though these deposits are rude, and of no value beyond the forms of the vases ; yet they are very interesting in principle, as we did not know before of any foundation deposits being associated with pyramids.

CHAPTER II.

THE TOWN OF KAHUN.

13. Last year only a small part of the plan of Kahun was published, merely five streets of the workmen's quarter. But now we have before us a complete plan of the whole present extent of the town, comprising more than three quarters of all the rooms that ever existed there, so far as we can judge. As this is the first time that the complete plan of an Egyptian town has ever been disclosed, we shall examine it in some detail ; and it is of special interest, not only from the early date and the entireness of it, but from its having been laid out evidently by a single architect on a regular plan.

On first looking at the plan (PL. XIV) it is seen that the town is of two parts; the eastern part nearly as long as it is wide, and the western part which is built outside the thick wall, and which is a strip of closely packed workmen's houses. The west part is however of nearly the same date as the other, as such a barrack would never have been wanted here except for the pyramid builders: and its boundary wall is laid out to fit the line of the temple front. The geography of the place explains its outline; the Nile valley edge runs from S.W. to N.E. along the bottom edge of the town. The buildings are all in a slight hollow, bounded by a rise on the west, running from the temple across to the acropolis, and a rise on the north on which the north wall is built. The highest part of all the ground around is the acropolis, and the town is placed with this as the leading point

The general divisions of the town are,

  • The acropolis and the guard house.
  • The five great northern houses on one plan, and one other, along the north wall
  • The three great southern houses on one plan.
  • The dwelling houses joining the west wall.
  • The store rooms behind the great south houses.
  • The workmen's streets behind the great south houses.
  • The five workmen's streets on the east
  • The eleven workmen's streets in the separate western region.

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