48 THE HIERATIC PAPYRI.
 
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either with or without benefit to the granter, of as it is technically expressed, with or without consideration. A species of will and of marriage settlement would appear to have been commonly committed to writing under this name. Two examples of it exist in the collection and are translated in KAHUN p. 45. A third fragmentary papyrus contained the evidence given that the witness' father had made an amt-per exchanging his priesthood of Sepdu for some other benefit which the son might claim.

The sunu, apparently the appointment of a government officer, or the engagement of a servant: of the former kind there would seem to be an instance from Kahun: of the latter, one from Gurob (temp. Amenhotep III).

The aput, or official list of a man's household, enumerating not only members of his family, but also, if he possessed any, the serfs and slaves in batches as they were acquired. The household might include father, mother, female relations and young children of either sex. Adult males were probably employed as soldiers, clerks, labourers, etc., and would appear as such in other lists. These documents are drawn up in double columns, red and black, for it appears that generally speaking each Egyptian bore two names, and if he had only one name, in the second column instead of the surname is a kind of "ditto." Two examples, Kahun.

The am ren f lists, e.g. of superintendents and workmen engaged in dragging stone. Accounts kept journal-fashion; a fine and hitherto unique example from Thebes of the XIIIth dynasty is at the Gizeh Museum, and was published long ago by Mariette; Its decipherment, began by the great De Rougé was this year (curiously enough) re-commenced by Borchardt in the Berlin Zeitschrift für Aegyptische Sprache, where I shall soon give a résumé of it: it was kept by a scribe of the royal treasury at some period during the XIIIth dynasty, and contains for each day concise and formal notes of the occasions for which several drafts or payments were made, together with names of persons and lists of things paid out or received. At the end of the day the clerk drew up his balance sheet. Small fragments are numerous from Kahun, and good pieces can be restored so as to be intelligible. I may especially note an account of oxen (largely kept in fractions as if several persons might have an interest in an ox, or it may be that it was a butcher's account): also lists of articles in great variety either stolen or withdrawn from a store.

80. To these may be added memoranda either private or to be sent with letters, and written on small detached squares of papyrus. The letters form a numerous class. They are generally written on one side of a small sheet with the name of the writer and recipient on the back. The communication often exceeded the limits of one side and was continued on the back, but the most perfect specimens in the collection are nearly all of a very formal kind with hardly a grain of information, and this may explain the fact that they were still rolled up and sealed when Mr. Petrie discovered them. The earliest papyrus known is a fragment of a letter from Saqqâreh now at Gizeh. It dates from the Vth or Vlth dynasty and was commented on by Borchardt last year: letters of the XVIIIth-XXth dynasties are comparatively common, but none were hitherto known of the intervening periods. A specimen of a formal letter is translated in KAHUN p.46. Some quaint notes are scribbled on small squares of papyrus: one contains both the note and the reply, the latter in red ink.

81. II. COPIES.
Scientific works: A medical papyrus in three closely-written pages containing prescriptions for the use of midwives; some of these resemble in style the prescriptions contained in the Ebers (XVIIIth dynasty) and Berlin (XIXth dynasty) medical papyri, but there is nowhere any considerable verbal agreement. The prescriptions are very short, and there is only one incantation amongst them.

Fragments of a narrow strip with veterinary prescriptions in linear hieroglyphics, the lines in retrograde order. This is an absolute novelty.

Fragments of two mathematical works with text, I have not yet tried to identify their subjects; one I fear is beyond hope: it was beautifully written in columns, and still contains the most tantalising phrase "multiply by ½ to infinity." Was it the famous problem that "took in" Hercules ?

List of the fractions resulting from the division of 2 by the odd numbers from 3 to 21. The Egyptians could express any fraction that had 1 for the numerator, but no others, excepting only 2/3 Thus 3/19 is expressed by 1/12 + 1/76 + 1/124 The great mathematical "Rhind" Papyrus published and explained with great acuteness by Professor Eisenlohr in 1887 contains exactly the same table with some words of direction that are omitted from this example. (See Eisenlohr Mathematisches Handbuch, Text p. 36.)

Calculation of the contents of a circular granary resembling and yet differing considerably from that in Math. Handb. No.43 - numerals only without text.


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