3 THE PYRAMIDS OF ILLAHUN
 
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granite, making 178.9 inches. The width is 69 .6 at E., to 69'.3. On the south side at 34.5 is a passage 41.3 wide : this is 16.0 long, and then widens to 52 for 413.4 inches. This passage is cut in the marly rock, with a curved top, and is 70 high at sides, 79 in middle. It then turns to the west for 698.6 inches being 62 high or 73 in middle. Then turns to the north for 783 inches: then to the east for 331, and then to the south for 293, opening into the sepulchre, by a regularly permanent doorway in the granite with bevelled edges. This passage is most puzzling, as it has no branches, and merely leads round to within a few yards of where it starts, There is no sign of either end having been blocked up; nor is there any sign of a door or closing of the sepulchre doorway. The sepulchre is all of light-red granite, smoothly dressed but: not ground or polished. The sides are 123.1 E., 123.7 W. 206.2 N., 206.9 S. On the east is the entrance 611 wide, with 31.0 wall on each side. On the north is the doorway of the passage just named, at 10.1 from the west, and 41.6 wide. On the south is a doorway at 32.3 from the east wall, and 41.1 wide. This is 20.5 long through the granite, and then widens to 45.2 for a length of 89.0. cut in the marly rock. It is 62.8 at side and 72.8 high in middle. It then enters a. chamber 126.4 on E., 139.7 on W., 105.4 on N. 104.2 on S. This chamber is 70 high at the E. and W., and rises to 109.6 in the curved roof. In the west wall is a recess 40 by 21 inches, and 20 high. This has been cut later, probably by the Ramesside workmen, as it is not smeared with plaster like the chamber, and is hewn with a pick or chisel 1.1 wide, whereas the pyramid hewer's pick was .55 inch wide and much rounder.

To return to the granite sepulchre. The floor is of granite; and, where the door sill has been broken away, a bed of clean sand between the granite and the rock can be seen. The ceiling is of granite, sloping blocks butt one against the other, and are cut out beneath into a circular curve, which rises 40.8 with a width of 123.3. The upper sides of the blocks are left rough hewn and straight. This construction is exactly like that of the sepulchre of Menkara at Gizeh. The height of the doorway is 81.9; the wall is 72.0 high on N., 72.8 N.W., 71.7 S.: the middle is 110.9 high at E., 11.9 in middle, 112 .0 at W. The north door is 51.9 high at the sides, and 59.6 in middle. The south door is 51.0 high at sides. All the doorways have bevelled edges. The sarcophagus stands 10.36 at S., 10.66 at N., from W. wall ; and 6.38 at E 6.58 at W., from S. wall.

9. The sarcophagus is perhaps the finest piece of mechanical work ever executed in such a hard and difficult material. The form is quite unlike that of any other coffin known, having a wide lip all around the top. (See the end view oil PL. II.) Another strange peculiarity is that the bottom is of varying thickness; or the inside depth being equal all over, the outside depth slopes down nearly 4 inches from end to end. As the sides are cut square with the top, and the floor is level, the ends all lean over, and the top slants; in short the whole thing is tilted by standing on a sloping bottom. I carefully measured it by stretched threads and plumb lines, with offsets read to a thousandth of an inch. The surface, though not polished, is smooth-ground to an impalpable fineness, and most exquisitely flat. For instance along the top length of 106 inches the errors from a straight line are -7,+5, +17, -7, -7 thousandths on E. side; and +7, 0, -13, -3, +7 on W., or an average of 7 thousandths of an inch of error. On the ends 50 inches long, the errors are -1, - 3, -1, +5, 0; and -6, +8, +5, -7, average error 4 thousandths of an inch. The errors of parallelism are also very small ; the N. end is 50.053, and S. end 50.073, or a 50th of an inch of difference on 106 inches length. The E. side is 106.100, and the W. 106.116, or a 60th of an inch different. In the lower part of the outside there was not such excessive care, and the average error is 37 thousandths on the distance from side to side, including the errors of forming the planes, and of their parallelism. But even this is fine work on such a scale. The inside is also very parallel ; the width at the N. being 26.542 and at the S. 26.552, or only a 100th of an inch slant The curvature of the planes is almost nothing, over the length of 82 inches; the E, side hollowing 5, and the W. side bulging 2 thousandths, a difference which is probably covered by the errors of measurement, owing to a slight tilt of the sarcophagus sideways. The ends cannot be accurately measured by plumb {inc owing to the great tilt endways. The skew of the planes of the inside is 5 thousandths on the W., and 7 thousandths on the E, which again may be confounded by the slight tilt of the whole sideways; but it is almost inappreciable in any case. Lastly, after straightness, flatness, and parallelism, there is the question of ratio between the dimensions, or accuracy of proportions. This is far more difficult. as it requires all the previous accuracies, and in addition a truly divided scale, and an irremediable


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