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and inserted (hence come the multitude of such faces, as the cartonnages are often rotten or broken up) and the head painted with a wig. Sometimes the cartonnage is painted with scenes of offerings to gods all over it. The body inside seldom has any amulets and is usually mere black dust and bones. Another type of burial is in the figure coffins carved out of a block; these are generally painted white; with an inscription sometimes down the front, sometimes around the feet. The face is white, or red, or green with a green and black wig. These cases do not contain a cartonnage; but only the body, black dust and bones.



52. In a rise of the desert to the north of the town of Gurob an extensive cemetery was formed in Ptolemaic times; and the style of it is so different to that of any other period, that it is worth notice. The usual form of the tombs was a pit about eight feet deep widening on the west side into a hollow scooped out in the sandy soil, in which sometimes as many as a dozen coffins were placed. The coffins were all unpainted; of rough brown wood, and thin. The outline was widening to the shoulders and tapering to the feet, like some bassoon cases inverted. The lids had very deep sides, and the coffins were mere shallow trays, with edges not over an inch high ; thus just reversing the proportions of the coffins of the XXIInd dynasty. The only decoration of the coffin was a carved wooden head. These heads are of the most marvellous rudeness; a few are good enough to be grotesque, but others are things of which a Pacific islander would be ashamed. The noses are long triangular ridges, the eyes marked with two scores in the board, and the mouth with a third line. In some the nose is pegged on; and in others a ghastly attempt at improvement is made by painting black and white eyes. Within these grossly rough cases were comparatively fine cartonnages. The separate pieces of cartonnage at this time were the headpiece coming down with a spread on the chest: the pectoral or collar plate, semicircular; the open-work frame with figures of gods; the flat rectangular plate upon the legs, about 4 X 18 inches, with the four genii, and sometimes Isis and Nebhat ; and the footcase, with sandals painted on the bottom or two slips separate on the soles of the feet. Sometimes only the head and sandals were used. The earlier heads were tolerably well made, of folds of linen pasted together, and moulded on a block. These blocks were in two parts; the back half, quite smooth behind, which could be withdrawn after moulding; and the front half, with the face in relief, which could be lifted out after the back half was gone. The cloth was pressed on wet, and retains the marks of the junction and carving of the mould. Over the cloth was a coat of stucco, painted dark blue, and often the face was gilt and burnished very skilfully. In later time, about Philadelphos, papyrus was substituted for cloth, and several layers of Demotic or Greek papyri were glued together, covered with stucco and painted , sometimes the face was gilt, sometimes yellow, or else white: the back of the head sometimes has scenes of offering painted on it; and this class of head cartonnage developed into the massive plaster headpieces of the Ist and IInd century found at Hawara, which lead up to the time of painted portraits (see "Hawara" PL. IX). The later stage, of this papyrus cartonnage was under Philadelphos and Euergetes, when they no longer glued together the papyri; but merely soaked them and plastered them one on the other; trusting to crossing them, and a good coat of plaster and glue on the outside, to hold them together. The papyri recovered from the glued cases are mostly in a bad state; the gluing, the soaking, and separating, and washing, all injure the writing; and the glue has attracted insects, who in most cases have eaten the papyrus entirely away, and left nothing but a hollow double film of stucco. The later cases made with plain wetting are far the best source of papyri ; and where a document has been used whole, and put on a flat part (as down the back, or in the pectoral), it may be taken out none the worse for its burial of over two thousand years.

53. Most of the mummies are bandaged, and then covered with a cross bandaging of narrow strips of linen, with edges folded in so as to make a neat band about half an inch wide. These bands overlie the cartonnage; and retain it on the mummy. Exactly the same system of bands is seen on the Roman mummies of Hawara; and there it developed into a regular ornamentation of recessed squares (Hawara, IX, 4) which afterwards had plaster knobs, gilt or coloured, set in the bottom of the hollows. Every stage which leads up to this complicated decoration can be traced.

Some burials were in a different style. Often rush

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