27 ILLAHUN IN THE TWENTY-SECOND DYNASTY
 
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and Ta-bakem. On one sarcophagus were placed two hawks at the ends, cut in wood and painted; within were three coffins, one in the other; the innermost being stuccoed and gilt all over; but the gilding had all been tarred, and it fell to pieces on exposure. The eyes of all were inlaid with limestone and bronze lids and brows. The inscription (3) was around the feet of the outer coffin. All of these coffins peeled, and were destroyed by exposure to the air. On the mummy was a diagonal bead network, and the scarabs of PL. XXIX, 1 to 10. They were all shifted by moving the mummy case before I opened it. No. 1 is like plaques of Se-amen, XXIst dynasty; and as there is nothing characteristic of later times here, I should assign this burial to that age. No. 3 is peculiar, the design is pretty certainly Ramesside, yet the colour is exactly like that of No. 6. It suggests that there may have been a revival of copying old work for lack of a new style ; and No. 6, early as it looks, may be an imitation made in the XXIst dynasty. The great gross Bes scarab, 4, may well be of this age also. Nos. 2, 5, 7, 9, 10, are all of the XXth or XXIst; 5 being an imitation of the Seti I and Tahutmes III scarabs. While 9, though of early style, shews by its colour that it is probably an imitation. Nos. 3 and 6 are set in copper bands.

The other mummy was in similar cases, but with the inscription 1 down the second case. On the body lay a gilt stucco band inscribed, (K. XXV, 2) and two genii, Amset and Kebhsenuf, of the same material. There were many small silver cowries mixed with the shifted beads of the network. The hair had been cut off, and lay in a truss beneath the head ; a similar case I noted on a Roman mummy at Hawara, where a long mass of hair had been cut off, and laid down the front of the body under the bandages. At the feet of this burial was a large lot of very rude tiny ushabti, made of rough pressed pottery dipped into a blue wash : others lay by the middle, and a jar at the feet.

50. Another tomb, the finest of all at Illahun, is that of Amenardus, the whole contents of which were taken at the Bulak Museum. The innermost coffin of all had a nonsense inscription. Next to that was a splendid false sarcophagus, with all the inscriptions carved in the wood ("Kahun", XXVI) , as it could not be safely moved entire, I took it to pieces, marked the parts, and transported it in perfect condition to Bulak ready to be set up. Beneath it stood a bier, framed of wood, with four lions' feet for legs to it On that was the wooden sarcophagus, stuccoed white, and finely ribbed all over to imitate drapery. On the mummy was a network of beads, arranged thus; 5½ rows down to the beadwork scarab, 4 lines on each side of that, 1 row to the ba bird, 3 rows to the genii of Amenti, 3 rows down to a band, and 15 rows onward to the feet. Outside of this coffin were a jackal and hawk carved in wood and painted, fixed on the head and foot of the false sarcophagus. On another similar burial were the jackal and hawk; and inside a coffin of a woman with the same style of ribbed drapery modelled in stucco. At the head of each of these burials was a square box with a short obelisk standing up on the lid, painted white and red ; in the box a quantity of very small clay ushabtis of the roughest kind. By the coffins were two small model false sarcophagi, duly inscribed with white paint along the edges and corners; and containing a large quantity of the same very rude ushabtis. At the sides of Amenardus were two carved and painted wooden Osiris figures. The Osiris Khent-amenti is about two feet high, well executed, and fixed on a tray or hand-barrow, for carrying it, with four handles at the corners. The Osiris Sokar is fixed on a block stand. The last interment was one of Pafui (K. XXV, 17), which was a square coffin, containing a stuccoed figure-case with polished red face. This tomb is perhaps the finest of that age on record ; and I hope that in the Ghizeh Museum we may see the various objects placed together, and in their original arrangement, as a complete instance of an interment. The use of giving this detailed description is to illustrate the custom of the time, and to enable curators to understand the age and original purpose of the various stray things without a history which crowd our European collections.

51. To conclude, I will describe the typical details of the burials of the XXIInd dynasty. The coffin thin, straight sloping sides with a alight shoulder, and round head; sides upright. Lid flat board with an edge to it, inscription down the middle, usually nonsense, or the personal name omitted at the end. Head and shoulders in relief, and sometimes the hands; the face a carved block of wood. the head-dress formed of stucco, or more usually of Nile mud; brilliantly painted with red, blue, yellow, black and white ; the decoration a wig and vulture head-dress. Inside lies a cartonnage of linen and plaster, modelled to the body form, split down the back, where the mummy was slipped into it. The surface generally white with a band of inscription down the middle : a spread vulture at the top of it sometimes with a ram's head : the face carved in wood


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