26 ILLAHUN IN THE TWENTY-SECOND DYNASTY
 
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If too hot it sinks in too deep, and sticks to all the bandages below; it should be just on the point of chilling. If poured on to the beadwork it runs away in a narrow stream; it needs to be dashed on, sufficiently sharply to spread it, but not hard enough to move the beads. When the coat is laid, and has hardened, it may be lifted up with all the beads sticking together, and then transferred to a tray and fixed in with more wax. This is the only way to preserve these bead patterns when the thread has decayed; only those with firm thread - found in Upper Egypt - have hitherto been brought to museums. The most usual ornament in bead-work is a winged scarab on the breast, joined in - as such work always is - to the diagonal network which covers the mummy. The most elaborate example that I have seen had a diagonal net on the head, a bead work face on the face joining to a beadwork collar which again joined to a scarab with wings: then a line of diagonal net and a ba bird with outspread wings; then three lines of diagonal and a Ma with outspread wings; then more diagonal work, and the row of four genii of Amenti, and some unintelligible patterning below that. The glass beads of plain colours have quite vanished; and the eye beads of Ramesside time (XVIII, 30) have turned into a rather scarce class of blue eye beads, with fine veins of brown and white around the eyes (XXIX, 53, 3).

48. We note also the first appearance of several classes which became very prominent in later times. The Ptah-sokar on the crocodiles ( XXIX, 43, backed by Bast, with outspread wings) descended into the large class of Horus on the crocodiles. The head with a wide collar (commonly mis-named an aegis) (XXIX, 16) is very common down to Ptolemaic work. The large uta eyes (XXIX, 11, 18, 19), continue to the Roman age. The menat counterpoises (22) were often made in the Saite and Sebennyte dynasties. The small glazed figures of deities are very scarce before this time, but abundant in the later ages. Amulets first are found on the mummies now, and hence developed into such a great system in the Saite times. In short, we may go so far as to say that there is a wider gap between the manufactures of the XIXth and XXIInd dynasties - in that space of two centuries - than in any other period of Egyptian art. It is often hard to distinguish between things of the old and middle kingdom, or between the middle kingdom and the Empire ; or between the Saites and Ptolemies. But between the XXIInd dynasty and all that went before it there is a profound separation. Whatever was common in that age continued in some form down to the end of Egyptian art, it was the beginning of the end. But all the striking manufactures of the Empire which had descended from earliest ages seem to come to an end with the Ramessides. Why this great separation should have taken place we cannot yet understand. The old schools must have become extinct in the poverty of the breaking up of the Empire. And the new men of the Delta, must have obtained their habits from a fresh source.

49. We will now notice two or three special tombs in detail. In one tomb on the hill at the end of the dyke there was a short well leading to a small chamber, and beyond that another chamber. In this lay four coffins. The earliest naturally was that at the back, a lightly made coffin outlined to the figure, but with upright sides; a lid on the top with a coloured head and hands: this contained another similar, and inside that a good cartonnage case covering the whole mummy, and with a slit down the back where it was put in. The inscriptions on these were all real, (and not shams as are most of this age) and are given in "Kahun" XXV, 9, 10, 12. This coffin was banked around by chips of rock which cover the floor of the tomb to some depth. Upon this coffin lay a similar one, containing a cartonnage, also inscribed ("Kahun" XXV, 12). In front of these stood a false sarcophagus. This style of burial was common in that age; a frame and panelling looking like a sarcophagus stood over the mummy; but it had no bottom, and stood on legs, and the top was all in one with the sides. It was simply set down over the mummy, which rested on the ground below it. This false sarcophagus was inscribed down the middle of the lid for Horuta, son of Au (K. XXV, 16) in blue on yellow; the ends had the old curve top sarcophagus design ; the sides were painted in false door panels containing figures; and the edges and corner posts were all painted with inscriptions like that on the lid. Beneath this there lay a white cartonnage covering inscribed around the feet, and with a very deep necklace painted on it covering the body. In front of this was the last burial, a plain white lightly made figure coffin. There were no beads or amulets of any kind with the burials. The bodies and bandages fell to mere black dust when disturbed.

In another tomb which I did not clear out myself, were two sarcophagi ; within them two large mummy cases with pink and yellow faces, and inscriptions painted in blue on the raw wood ("Kahun" XXV, 1, 3). They contained two singers of Amen, Ta-rat


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