20 MEDINET GUROB
 
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with the name of Tahutmes III is of opaque blue glass. A spirited rough outline (25) has been scratched on a piece of pottery before baking. The inscriptions (34,28) are cut on slips of wood, from some inlaying of boxes; (31) is on a separate piece of wood; and (32, 33) were on slips found together, referring to the eastern and western house of Ramessu III in the Fayum, an expression that might refer to Illahun and Gurob as being on the opposite banks of this branch of the Nile.

Of the scarabs and rings (PL. XXIII) there is no need to say much. It is strange that a scarab of Pepi should turn up at Gurob; it is the only one there earlier than the founder of the town Tahutmes III, and this absence of the earlier kings of the XVIIIth dynasty incidentally shews how soon scarabs dropped out of use after they were made. No. 21 is a new variety " beloved of all the gods of the palace." No. 45 is a curious ring with young Ramessu seated on the nub in relief on the bezel. The unnamed scarabs are arranged, as nearly as can he judged, in their order of date.

40. The inscriptions from Gurob (PL. XXIV) are all of the XVIIIth dynasty. They are drawn here on a uniform size of sign ; while the actual dimensions of each piece are stated in inches. The large lintel slab of Tahutmes III is from the temple which he built; and which, to judge by this, must have been well decorated. The left hand side of it, bearing hieroglyphs reading in the more usual direction, was done by a skilled sculptor, while the other half was copied by a pupil who shews very inferior ability in both outline and details. This is now in the Adelaide museum. The black granite altar is of special interest Though roughly cut it seems to have belonged to a class of funerary offerings made for Amenhotep Ill by his celebrated queen Thii. It follows the usual formulae to Osiris, for the royal ka of Amenhotep III, down each side ; and then along the base is a line stating that "The great royal wife Thii made her monuments of her brother, her beloved, the good god Ra-ma-neb." The question of the parentage of Thii is one of the most important genealogies in Egyptian history. In every other case that we can prove, the queen through whom the royal descent entailed was herself of royal family. But Thii is stated to have been the daughter of luaa and Tuaa. Here however she is the sister of Amenhotep III. Her parents therefore would have been Tahutmes IV and Arat. And she has the title of inheritance, "princess of both lands," on a colossus at Thebes. Either then luaa and Tuaa. were the familiar names of Tahutmes IV and Arat (as every Egyptian had a great and little name), and Thii was thus sister to her royal husband, as were most of the other queens ; or else these titles of sister, and "princess of both lands" were purely formal. It has been claimed as being formal in other cases, but that is very doubtful; unless it can be shewn that a queen was not of the royal stock, her possession of them is no proof of the formality of these titles. So strong does the principle of female inheritance of the throne seem to be in many crucial cases, to the exclusion of male inheritance, that the presumption is that Thii was really the sister of Amenhotep as here stated. The slab from Gurob (9) with the ka name of Amenhotep IV is a variant on the known forms; it seems to shew that some large buildings or repairs to the temple were made in his time. Some building also went on in this district under Khuenaten; as in a tomb at Illahun a block of sculpture (10) was found reused, which represented Khuenaten (tattooed with the names of Aten) holding his daughter Ankh-sen-pa-aten; while an offerer in front worships the disc, which is figured as an Asiatic rosette with pendant streamers, and would seem more in place on a BabyIonian monument than in Egypt. This block is now in the University of Pennsylvania. The little tablet (11) representing a royal scribe Ra-mes-m-pa-amen adoring Tahutmes III, is probably of the XVIIIth dynasty, in spite of the Ra-mes name.

41. The cubit (12) is of wood, inscribed all along; one end has been broken away about 1.3 inch, at a knot in the wood. The inscription contains the titles of Tut-ankh-amen and his queen Ankhsamen. The dimensions of the cubit are .94 x .63 inch, with bevelled edge as usual; in the remaining end is a round hole, .32 across and .36 deep, with flat bottom; it seems as if intended to hold a stud to give an accurate terminal to the cubit. The divisions are roughly cut, being at (end) 0, 2.80, 4.16, 5.75. 8.63, 10.08, 10.97, 11.70, 14.70, and 17.77 inches. The palms therefore between the cuts (excluding the butt end) are 2.95, 2.88, 3.07, 3.00, 3.07 inches, which would indicate a cubit of 20.96; or if the butt end lost were of the same length as that remaining the total would be 20.57 which is nearer the probability. No accurate value can be deduced from this therefore.

42. The weights found at Gurob are here stated along with those found last year (numbered 4899 to 4912) so as to give a complete view of the metrology of the place. The arrangement of the table is similar


CORRECTION
The ka name is one of those of Tahutmes III and not of Amenhotep IV: hence there is no reason to suppose any building to have been made here later than Tahutmes III.

W.M.F.P


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