2 THE PYRAMIDS OF ILLAHUN
 
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fell down the shaft, and was killed on the spot. The survey of the pyramid is unfortunately incomplete. The sepulchre and adjoining chambers, and the sarcophagus are completely measured ; the passages are tolerably done by Mr. Prase's measures, but the south end of the passage and details of the water well are doubtful. The connection with the pyramid above is vague; nothing remains at the pyramid base to define it, and a general survey of the pyramid all over is needed before an estimate of the original position can be made. This incompleteness of the plan arose from some weeks of illness at the close of the diggings, which prevented my doing active work.

6. On referring to the plan of the passages (PL. II) it is seen that the shaft now opened is not at all the main one. Another shaft must exist at the end of the south passage, as the granite sarcophagus is 50 inches wide; the south passage is 54 at the doorway, and the long passage not less than 63 wide, and the entrance to the chambers is 54 wide. So the sarcophagus would pass all these ; whereas the door- way at the bottom of the used shaft is but 31 inches. The now-used shaft must therefore have been only a back way, to enable the workmen to pass in and out while the main shaft was blocked with lowering the stonework. At the end of the S. passage is a brick wall broken through: Beyond that is a mass of blocks of stone and chips, which seem to turn to the west and to rise upward. Here then is probably the main shaft; but though I cleared much of the ground on the surface, which is encumbered with several feet thick of original banked-up chips, I could not find the top entrance. If it had not been for the second shaft under the pavement, it is probable that this pyramid would never have been opened.

7. The south passage is 734 ins. long; and about 7 feet wide and 4 feet high, but much encumbered with stone, so that it is difficult to crawl along it. The entrance chamber is 132 N. to S., and about 208 to the recess with the water well. This recess is 82 by 102 ins. and the well about 4 feet by 5; it is difficult to reach it owing to a long slope of earth which is above the well. The well itself is full of very salt water up to about the level of the chamber floor. Why such a well should have been made we cannot see. Probably the water level has risen with the rise of Nile deposits, and may have been 15 feet lower when the pyramid was built The well was therefore perhaps a dry shaft. It may have been either to catch any rain-water running down the shaft above, like the safety wells in the tombs of the kings; or it may have been a water well; or it may lead to some other passages below. It is doubtful even whether all the pyramid passages known may not be a. blind, as there is neither a trace of a lid to the sarcophagus, nor of any wooden coffin or mummy in the chamber. On the other hand there arc no elaborate precautions for barring the intruder, as at Hawara, and everything was trusted to the secrecy of the entrances. It is unlikely that there is anything of importance beneath this water well, as there seems to have been no care to cover over its upper part.

The passage into the pyramid slopes upward, as will be seen in the section, PL. II. The whole length slopes 6 46' from end to end, but the lower part appears to slope father less, and the upper part more. The axis of this passage is 6 40' E. of magnetic N., which shews that it is probably very nearly true north. The limestone chamber was observed as 10 1/2 N. of magnetic W and if so is 4 askew to the passage, and is so drawn here. The first part of the passage is 648 long on the slope : it is 64 wide, and 74 high on the wall, or 80 in the middle of the curved roof. It is cut in the soft rock fairly well, but the rock is so crumbly and poor that it is merely hard marl, and no smooth face can be made.

The passage chamber is 276 on S., 267 on N., 124 on E., 127 on W. It is heaped up with broken marl from the rock; though where such a quantity has come from it is hard to tell. The upper part of the passage is 894 long, 76 wide, 69 high on the wall, and 79 in the middle. At the top end it is roughly smeared with a thin coat of white plaster, filling up all the roughnesses. It contracts to a doorway 54 wide and 70 high on entering the limestone chamber. Throughout these passages therefore there is no need of stooping, but they arc made of full height, like those of the Hawara pyramid.

8. The limestone chamber is cut m the soft marly rock, and lined with blocks of fine limestone. The roof-blocks, and part of the top of the walls, have been broken up, and lie strewing the floor; a damage probably due to the Ramesside masons. The chamber is 123.7 E., 122.8W., 196.7 N., 195.3 E.; the wall height is 136.2, and the pointed roof rose 37.3 more, according to the piece of the gable end wall which remains, making 173.5 inches in all. The doorway is 5.6 to 59.6 from the E. On the west is a contracted part 8l.2 wide; leaving 20.7 on N., and 20.9 on S. side. This is 41.8 N., 41.3 S. length: and contracts to & passage, leaving 5.8 on N., 5.6 on S. This passage is 159.9 long to the granite, and 19.0 of


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