Title page


in the body, under Ramessu VI (Tell el Yehudiyeh XV, 11) : the wide jugs of earlier times (XVII, 1, 6) have become narrow and pointed in form (62) as at Tell el Yehudiyeh; the other pottery (45, 54) now appears for the first time. The foreign pottery is of the false-necked vase (52), large, coarse, of Egyptian ware, and evidently an imitation of the real Aegean pottery. The pilgrim bottles (58,59) have developed; and one is in dark greenish blue glaze (61). A remarkable bronze dish (53) and bucket (60) were found here ; both are hammered to a marvellous thinness, with a thickened brim, but both sadly contorted by the fire and pressure. There are also many needles (36, 37). tweezers (34, 35), prickers (33) and two razors (44) of bronze. The alabaster follows the forms of the pottery (43) and is also made into clumsy figure vessels; a girl with a dish (28), and a duck with wooden wings painted (27). Of wood there is a statuette of a queen (43), two polished trays (49). a kohl reed (41), and pin (40), besides a bronze kohl pin (39) and two combs (one nearly burnt away) with a horse drinking (46), carved on the back. The usual jasper earrings occur (29), and alabaster ear-studs (47); the beads are mostly of glass (30), the eye beads of black, white, and yellow being the commonest. The rude pendants of Bes and Taurt (31). cut in stone and blue glazed, first appear here ; and that style lasted down to the XXIInd dynasty. The carnelian is cut also into coarse pendants such as the Horus (48). The eye with the cartouches of Ramessu II and Nefertari (31) is broken and worn, so it cannot have been new when buried, but the long reign of Ramessu II would give quite time enough for its deterioration. The large black glass bead, with white and blue pattern (32) is remarkable. The whetstone (50) was probably used for the bronze knife (38).

The last dated group is under Seti II (PL. XIX), dated by a little tray of black steatite with his name. The pottery is more debased, and most of it like that of the latter Rarncssides at Tdl el Yehudiyeh. This close connection of the pottery of the Faytim and Delta is of value, as shewing that the same styles, in every detail, were prevalent over large areas, and probably over the whole country, at one period. The pottery is coarse brown (1, 3, 5, 6,8, 11, 12, 13), and polished red faced (2,4,7,9,10,15). Some is of foreign form, such as the false-necked vase (13) but of native ware, and evidently made by a potter who had lost the feeling of the original type. The same may be said of the pilgrim bottle (17). Blue glazed ware occurs, as the pilgrim bottle (14), and the very coarsely painted bowl, (26). Alabaster is of very clumsy forms, (20, 25) ; and if better (as 19, 27) the type is a mere degradation. Blue finger rings abound, (21, 22) ; amd beads are very coarse, in glass and pottery ; or apparently old descended necklaces of jasper (24). The little dish is curious ; the sides are roughly engraved with Ptah, the king slaying an enemy before a god, the names of Seti II, and a scarab beetle (23).

38. We will now briefly recapitulate the consecutive changes in various objects, that may be learned from these dated deposits. And though it might reasonably be objected that one dated object might easily last in use for a long time, and be buried with subsequent remains; yet the sequence that can be traced in these deposits shews good reason for assuming that small things lasted in use for not more than a generation, as is naturally the case. The absence of scarabs here before Tahutmes III, shews the same. In the necklaces we may trace sometimes the patched-up acts of two or three earlier periods all put together ; but this is not commonly the case. We have noticed the changes in the form of the bronze knives, gradually widening and turning up at the butt. The beads here are entirely carnelian under Amenhotep III, though probably violet and black glass beads were already made; they are of pottery under Tutankhamen ; of clumsy stone early in Ramessu II; of glass, and coarse glazed stone, late in Ramessu II ; and of very coarse glass, and pottery glazed, under Seti II. The blue glazed vases also deteriorate : the lines are fine and thin under Amenhotep III; coarse but good colour under Tutankhamen ; coarse, and poor colour, much green, under Ramessu II ; and very rude under Seti II. Glass bottles are as old as Tahutmes III we know from other sources : here they appear under Tutankhamen and Ramessu II. The pottery becomes coarser, poorer, and of exaggerated forms as time goes on. The false-necked vases can now be well traced ; beginning in a globular form, of fine Aegean ware, with iron-glaze bands, under Amenhotep III ; next flatter in form during the end of that dynasty, with discs surrounded by dots ; tolerably imitated on a large scale under Ramessu II ; roughly copied in native pottery under Seti II ; and of very rude style in native clay, under the later Ramessides (Tell el Yehud.). To displace this dating by a century, every stage of this history would need to be altered; the sequence is quite regular so far as Egypt is concerned ; and if the type came down to later times in other

home - previous page - next page