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Some more hoes were found of the compound form usual ; and also some of the natural hoes, formed of a forked branch trimmed into form (28). These I have not seen in Egypt before, nor on the sculptures ; they are the evident prototypes of both the hoe and the adze. The large pointed implement (29) seems to be a plough coulter.

26. Another flint sickle has been found (27) later in development than that of last season ("Kahun," IX, 22), and dated to the XVIIIth dynasty by a piece of pottery with it This retains three of the four flint saws in position, set in a groove in the wood by black cement, probably of Nile mud and some sticky substance. The tip of this sickle is broken off; and the handle instead of being carved in one piece, as before, is attached with pegs. We now see how much these sickles explain of the use of the toothed flints both of Egypt and Syria ; the majority of such flints are just suited to these implements, and shew signs of the wear not extending beyond the edge, i.e. only where the flint was not embedded in the cement setting (5). Several flint tools were found; but as these will be described by Mr. Spurrell (Chap. XI) I need only here notice the classes. (VII, 1) is an adze; (2) a scraper; (3) a hornstone axe, and (4) a flint axe; (5, 5a) are the corner flints of large sickles ; (6) a saw flint; (7, 8) knives ; (9) is half of a sharp- edged flint, of a type not seen in others of the XIIth dynasty, and of a different quality; it is therefore probably of the age of some scarabs found with it - the XVIIIth dynasty. (10, 12, 15, 16) are scrapers ; (11 and 14) probably knives. A remarkable flint knife is that in a large find of the XIIth dynasty (XIII, 6), having remains of binding with fibre and cord on the handle ; flint flakes (4, 5) were also found with it.

27. The copper tools have again been found here ; and the recent analyses by Dr. Gladstone, F.R.S., of those found last year have established that the tools of the XIIth dynasty are copper, and those of the XVlll-XIXth are bronze. His analyses are as follow (see Soc. Bib. Arch. 1890) :

XIICopper    Tin Arsenic AntimonyIronTotal
Hatchet    93.26.523.90.16.2198.05
Mirror95somesome ..little ..
Knife..about .5........

These shew that although small impurities existed in copper of the earlier times and were probably valued for hardening the metal, yet these were rather the accidental results of particular ores, than a deliberate mixture, such as the 7 per cent of tin in the XVIIIth dynasty. The metal tin had been separated, and was known at that later time, as I found a pure tin ring with glass beads of the end of the XVIIIth dynasty at Gurob. In short, copper and flint ran their course side by side, equally in use, down to the close of the middle kingdom; and when the Empire arose in the XVIIIth dynasty flint had almost ceased to be worked, and bronze had replaced copper. The copper hatchet (VII, 19) and adze (18) were found together. The hatchet is bound around with thread, and sealed twice with a private scarab, impressed on Nile mud : what the reason for this sealing may have been, we do not know; it was not a maker's mark, as the hatchet is worn ; but it may have been sealed as a matter of a legacy, or disputed property, or to prevent any person using it. The copper knife (20) is of an unusual shape. Other small knives were found, like those in "Kahun" (XVII, 18-20); and some with the shank rolled up (17), a rude form of handling it. Two round chisels (21) and many fishhooks, tweezers (VIII, 6), needles, and a netting needle (VIII, 3), were also found; beside more of the puzzling knives (VIII, 4, 5) with a hinging back piece, which though previously only known in the XVIIIth dynasty (" Kahun" XVII, 43) are now found to belong to the XIIth dynasty, having been found in the rubbish heaps. Among other tools may be named several plummets of the type found last year (" Kahun," VIII, 19); another shell scoop (K. VIII; 10) ; and two small shells (PL. VIII, 16), set in reed handles, the purpose of which is quite unknown.

28. The group No. 9 was the most numerous found in Kahun (see PL. XIII, 1-18). It was in a house on the south side of the second street from the top, in the workmen's western quarter. The date of the group is not well fixed; but the flint and copper implements, and the forms of the alabaster vases, shew that it belongs to the XIIth or XIIIth dynasty. The mirror (8) is of fine yellow metal, and still bright and clean enough to reflect from the greater part of it ; the handle is of hard brown wood, carved with a head of Hathor on either side. The torque (18) is of copper; I do not remember another instance of a torque in ancient Egypt. The spoon (7) is of wood, and has had a little figure at the end of it, of which only the feet remain. Three alabaster vases are of one type (1), one thrice the size here drawn, and two about double of the drawing. Another alabaster vase is of the form (3). A vase of green paste (2) is of the

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