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The Middle Kingdom
12th - 13th Dynasty

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hippo, 20th century BCE
(20th century BCE)

Horizontal loom
11th Dynasty

Source: Website of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York









Accounting in Ancient Egypt
Picture from the tomb
of Khnumhotep


The Middle Kingdom
12th - 13th Dynasty

(Dates: ± 50 years)
2050 - 11th Dynasty
  • Domesticated cats possibly introduced from Nubia or Libya.
  • Graveyards have a "Holy Road"
  • Earliest ushabtis as grave goods under Mentuhotep II
  • Tombs of Mentuhotep III and IV at Deir-el-Bahari: two floors with pillar halls, at the centre a pyramid, a broad ramp leading to the upper floor
  • Model ships with painted figurines etc as gifts to the dead.
  • Hennu journeys south along the east-African coast.
2000 - 12th Dynasty
1985 - Amenemhet I
  • Giant tomb of an officer and landowner at Assiut: 7 chambers, 50 metres long. Inscriptions determine the services to be held after his death.
  • The Teachings of King Amenemhet for his son Senusret I, pessimistic world view
  • Apparently murdered
1955 - Senusret I
  • Senusret I (Sesostris) extends Egyptian influence to the third cataract in Nubia. Fortification with bastions in Nubia
  • Tomb of Sirenpowet at Asswan: Staircase, courtyard, entrance hall, three aisled hall, reliefs
  • Mass sacrifices of Nubians at burials of Egyptian princes
  • Obelisk erected at the temple of Heliopolis, commemorating 30 years of the rule of King Senusret I.
  • Rock tombs at Beni Hassan with culturally interesting pictures and inscriptions.
    In the tomb of Amenemhet I: three aisled inner room with double rows of fluted columns without capital (similar in form and style to those found in Greek temples). wall paintings: antelope hunt, dancers, bearers votive offerings
  • Rectilinear auxiliary grid lines used in relief sculpture
  • Proven cultural exchanges between Egypt and Mesopotamia
  • Feeding of the Antelopes", naturalistic wall painting in the tomb of Khnumhotep at Beni-Hassan
  • Grave of a second Sirenpowet at Asswan: Pictures of the deceased and his family
  • Right angles are constructed with the help of knotted ropes in the form of a triangle, the relation between the sides: 3 to 4 to 5.
1880 - Senusret II
  • Coffin Texts, magical spells on the inside of the coffins, serve the dead.
  • Granite statue of Nofret, wife of King Senusret II
  • Sandstone statue of Chertihotep
  • First alphabetic inscription on a rock, which appears to include two men's names, titles, and perhaps a prayer to a local god. (Syrian alphabetic writing dates from about 1700)
  • Settlement housing the workers who erected the pyramid of Senusret II at the entrance to the Fayum oasis in the Libyan desert.
1850 - Senusret III
  • King Senusret III seeks support from the rising bourgeoisie, conquers Nubia and Canaan.
  • Symmetrical, geometrical and ornamental forms preferred in reliefs
  • Canals, sluices and dams control the waters of the Nile at Fayum oasis and enable settlement.
  • Granite sphinx of Amenemhet III at Tanis
  • Granite block statue, merges the human body with the geometrical cube form.
  • Isis suckling Horus, copper statue
  • Pyramids and temples at Hawara (Fayum)
  • Rhind Papyrus: arithmetic book of Ahmes, with mathematical notes, examples taken from agricultural practice including fractions and area calculations [1].
  • Men's clothing: A long loin cloth made of linen. Women's clothing: A long shirt made of linen with shoulder straps, coloured collar. Shoes are not worn, sandals infrequently. Curly haired wigs.
1770 - Second Intermediate Period
  • Statue of Neferhotep I
  • Social unrest
  • Egyptian culture becomes more 'secular' and bourgeois.
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-[1] The Algebra of Egypt

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