Ancient Egypt: History and culture
Ancient Egypt: Hymn to Re, a Sepulchral Inscription of Panehsi
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Hymn to Re
A Tomb Inscription of Panehsi

(Adoration to Ra) ////// when he sets in the western horizon of heaven, by one skilled scribe of the sacrificial table in royal Apt, Panehsi.
 
He says: Hail Ra, (maker of) mankind, Tum Harmachis, one god living by truth, maker of beings, author of existences, of beasts and men, proceeding from your (his) eye, lord of heaven, lord of earth, maker of subjects and rulers, lord universal, bull of the cycle of gods, King of the upper sky, lord of gods, Sovereign Prince over the cycle of gods and goddesses, self-formed double essence that was in the beginning.
- -when he (i.e. Re) sets in the western horizon of heaven: The setting sun was identified with Atem.
-royal Apt: Brugsch: the quarter of the royal harem at Memphis
-Tum: Atem, creator god
-Harmachis: Greek for Heru-em-Akhet, Horus in the horizon, protector of the Giza necropolis, the sphinx
Homage to you, maker of gods, Tum, creator of intelligences, lord of delight, mighty one of loves, illuminating all living mankind; I give you adoration in the evening, propitiated, you repose in life, the sekti is in gladness of heart, the aat in exultation, they conduct you through the abyss in peace, your crew rejoicing; your radiant divine eye has overthrown your foe, repelling the advance of Apap. -Sekti: Boat of the morning. manezet - the solar bark of the day.
-Aat: Boat of the evening. mesektet (mskt.t) - the solar bark of the night.
-Apap: Apep, Greek Apophis, snake demon threatening the progress of Re.
You repose, gracious with glad heart, in the horizon of Manu, where you shine on the gracions god, lord of eternity, ruler of the nether world. You give illumination to the beings departed there: they see your glories, the dwellers of the hollows in their recesses, their arms are uplifted in adoration to your form. -Manu: the western world mountain, the eastern was called Bakhau. together they supported the heavens. In the papyrus of Ani the sun's setting is described as follows: the stars which are imperishable glorify thee as thou sinkest to rest in the horizon of Manu.
Spirits of the West rejoice when you beam on them, the lords of the deep are glad at heart when you illuminate the West, their eyes open to see you, their heart delights as they behold with acclamation your form above them; faultless their divine limbs are born, you frame them in their completeness, you rise, you destroy their ills, you set to refresh their limbs, they adore as you arrive to them, they occupy the front of your bark as you set in the horizon of Manu, renewed as Ra each day. -bark: cf. Solar Ships
-renewed as Ra each day: as rising sun Re was referred to as Khepri.
Grant that my soul may be among them, may your radiance beam on my frame, may I see the sun's disk amid those enlightened spirits of Hades, who sit before Unnifer, tending with careful regard the form of the Osirian scribe of the sacrificial table in royal Apt, Panehsi.
 
By his son, giving life to his name, Scribe of the divine book of the lord of the Two Lands, the protector residing at the royal palace, Apherumes, justified.
-Unnifer: also Wennofer, the "Eternally Good Being", name of Osiris after being appointed ruler of the world by his father Geb. His gift to mankind was the introduction of agriculture and viniculture.
-By his son: It was generally the eldest son who had to look after the spiritual welfare of his deceased parents. One of his duties was not to let their names be forgotten.
-Apherumes: Lushington: The god's title, Apheru, is now ususally accepted as Apmatennu or Apmatu.

E. L. Lushington Sepulchral Inscription of Panehsi
in S. Birch (ed.) Records of the Past, Series 1, Vol. 12, 1881

 


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