Ancient Egypt: History and culture
Ancient Egyptian texts and links to texts on Egyptology:
Mythology, hymns, magical writings
Tales, cartoons
Scientific writings
Teachings, instructions, 'wisdom' literature
Biographies, memorials
Documents, records, and letters concerning legal, economic, and personal matters
Historical, political writings, official accounts, decrees
Miscellaneous

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A scribe's tools
Source: Louvre Museum, Paris
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Ancient Egyptian texts

Is there any here like Hardjedef? Is there another like Iyemhotep? There have been none among our kindred like Neferti and Khety. I recall to you the names of Ptahemdjehuty and Khakheperresonbe. Is there another like Ptahhotep or Kaires?
Chester Beatty Papyrus IV
Sergio Donadoni ed., The Egyptians, University of Chicago Press 1997, p.61
    Like all else in Egyptology, ancient texts are the source of much controversy. While deciphering the writing and rediscovering the language has come a long way since Champollion, many doubts remain and translators can have widely differing interpretations of the same texts (cf the two versions of the Hymn to the Nile)
    This reader consists mostly of older translations which have been largely superseded by, as we hope, scientifically more correct versions. Some of the texts have been retranslated by me from French, German or Spanish versions, which adds another layer of possible misinterpretations. All this should however not diminish the pleasure that can be derived from reading them.
What they built of gates and chapels now are fallen,
their soul-priests and their gardeners are gone,
their headstones undiscovered in the dirt,
their very graves forgotten.
But their fame lives on in their papyrus rolls
composed while they were still alive;
And the memory of those who wrote such books shall last
to the end of time and for eternity.
John Lawrence Foster, Ancient Egyptian Literature: An Anthology, 2001 University of Texas Press, p.226
Let's hope so.
 

- Hieroglyphs included (full or partial line drawing of the text)
- Photograph of text
- Translation only
 
Typographical conventions mostly adhered to:
/// : undecipherable word
///// or ..... : undecipherable text
(): explanations by the translator
[ ]: restored text, thought to be safe
[ (?)]: uncertain.
passages in green have annotations in the right margin.

Mythology, hymns, magical writings

-A Hymn to Osiris and the Legend of the Origin of Horus - translated by E. A. Wallis Budge
-The Legend of the destruction of mankind - translated by E. A. Wallis Budge
-Hymn to the Nile (c. 11th dynasty) - translated by Oliver J. Thatcher, 1907; F. C. Cook, 1901
-Hymn to Senusret III (12th dynasty) - W. M. Flinders Petrie
-The contendings of Horus and Seth - W. K. Simpson (ed.), 1972
-Charm for the protection of a child, (ca. 16th century) - J. H. Breasted
-Hymns to the Aten (18th dynasty) - Pritchard, ed., 1958
-Inscription of a First Charioteer of his Majesty at Horbeit - Torgny Säve-Söderbergh
-Inscription of Paser - Serge Sauneron
-The Abydos stela of Ramses IV (20th dynasty) - Pierret, Breasted
-The Great Abydos stela of Ramses IV (20th dynasty) - Mikhaïl Korostovtsev
-pLeyden 371: To the wise spirit of Onkhari (20th dynasty or later) - G. Maspero
-The Shabaka Stone - M. Lichtheim
-The negative confessions from the Papyrus of Ani (New Kingdom) - translated by E. A. Wallis Budge
-A hymn to Re - tomb inscription of Panehsi - E. L. Lushington
-The Legend of Horus of Behutet and the Winged Disk (Ptolemaic Period), 1912
-The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden (3rd century CE) - translated by F. Ll. Griffith, 1904
-The Legend of Re and Isis - Budge, 1912
-Incantations against reptiles and noxious creatures in general - Budge, 1912
-The book of the victory over Seth - Schott, 1929
-Two versions of the creation myth - Budge
-Hymn to Hathor: the Egyptian agricultural cycle - After S. Sauneron
-The Famine Stela (Ptolemaic Period) - translated by M. Lichtheim, Günther Roeder, 1923
-Fragment of a Demotic dreambook (Roman Period) - After the transcription and German translation on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae website
 

Tales, cartoons

-The mouse as vizier - After a German translation by Emma Brunner-Traut, 2003
-The tale of the shipwrecked sailor (6th dynasty) - W. M. Flinders Petrie, 1914
-The tale of the eloquent peasant (Middle Kingdom) - G.A. Barton, 1920
-The Tale of Sinuhe (12th dynasty) - Alan H. Gardiner, 1916
-The Herdsman's Tale (12th dynasty) - After the transcription and German translation on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae website
-The Tales from the Westcar Papyrus (Middle Kingdom or later) - Donald Mackenzie, 1907
-The taking of Joppa, a tale of conquest by Djehuti under Thutmose III. (18th dynasty) - W. M. Flinders Petrie, 1914
-King Neferkare and General Sasenet (18th/19th dynasty) - After the transcription and German translation on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae website
-Truth and Falsehood: A tale (19th dynasty)
-The Tale of the Two Brothers: Anpu and Bata (19th dynasty) - W. M. Flinders Petrie
-The Tale of the Garden of Flowers (19th dynasty) - François Chabas
-Wenamen's journey to Byblos (20th dynasty)
-The Turin papyrus (Papyrus 55001)
-The Moscow literary letter or A Tale of Woe (end of the New Kingdom) - Gerald Moers
-Princess Ahura: The Magic Book (c. 1100 BCE) - W. M. Flinders Petrie, 1914
-A ghost story - Alan H. Gardiner, 1932
-The Doomed Prince - Donald Mackenzie, 1907
-The Bentresh Stela - Breasted 1906
-The Second Demotic Tale of Khamuas: Prince Khamuas and Si-Osiri - F. Ll. Griffith, 1900
 

Scientific writings

-The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus (Old Kingdom, surviving copy written down during the Middle Kingdom) - J. H. Breasted
-The Kahun Gynaecological Papyrus (Middle Kingdom) - F. Ll. Griffith
-The Kahun Veterinary Papyrus (Middle Kingdom) - F. Ll. Griffith
-The Hearst medical papyrus (Second Intermediate Period) - Walter Wreszinski
-Extracts from the Ebers medical papyrus (17th dynasty)
 

Teachings, instructions, 'wisdom' literature

-The instructions for Kagemni (4th dynasty) - J. Kaster; A.H. Gardiner, 1946
-Precepts of the prefect, the lord Ptah-hotep (5th dynasty, probably written down during the Middle Kingdom)
-The instructions of Merikare (First Intermediate Period) - R. O. Faulkner
-The teaching of Amenemhet I to his son Senusret (12th dynasty)
-The prophecies of Neferti (12th dynasty)
-The Loyalist Instruction from the Sehetepibre Stela (12th dynasty) - W. K. Simpson
-Debate between a man tired of life and his soul (12th dynasty) - R. O. Faulkner
-The admonitions of Khekheperre-sonbu (12th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The instructions of Khety - Satire of the trades (Middle Kingdom) - A. Erman
-The teaching of a man for his son (Middle Kingdom)
-The fowler's speech (Middle Kingdom)
-The admonitions of Ipuwer (Middle Kingdom or Second Intermediate Period)
-Regulation laid upon the vizier, Rekhmire (18th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-An ideal autobiography (18th dynasty) - Torgny Säve-Söderbergh
-Papyrus Anastasi I: A satirical letter (19th dynasty) - A. H. Gardiner
-Koller Papyrus - Model letter: The equipment of a Syrian expedition (New Kingdom) - A. H. Gardiner
Koller PapyrusKoller Papyrus: Warnings to the idle scribe (New Kingdom) - A. H. Gardiner
Nebmare-nakhtLansing Papyrus: Instruction in letter-writing by Nebmare-nakht (20th dynasty) - M. Lichtheim
AmennakhtThe Teaching of Amennakht (20th dynasty)
-Demotic papyrus of moral precepts (32nd dynasty) - T. Deveria
 

Biographies, memorials

-The biography of Metjen (3rd dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Tomb inscription of the nomarch Henku (5th/6th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Inscription of Ptahshepses (5th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Offering of Uha (5th dynasty) - D. Dunham
-The tomb inscription of the vizier Weshptah (5th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The autobiography of Weni (6th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Tomb inscription of Sheshi (6th dynasty) - M. Lichtheim
-Tomb inscriptions of Harkhuf (6th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Tomb inscriptions of Pepinakht (6th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The inscriptions of Sebni (6th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The inscription of Djau (6th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The biography of the nomarch Ankhtifi (~ 8th dynasty)
-The biography of the nomarch Tefibi (~ 9th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The inscriptions of Kheti, son of Tefibi (First Intermediate Period) - J. H. Breasted
-The inscriptions of Kheti, son of Sit (First Intermediate Period) - J. H. Breasted
-The stela of Mentuhotep, a self-made man (c. 11th dynasty)- A. Gardiner
-The stela of Irtisen (11th dynasty) - G. Maspero
-The stela of the policeman Kay (Early Middle Kingdom)
-The inscription of Khnumhotep I (12th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The inscription of Ameni (12th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The inscription of Khnumhotep II (12th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The stela of Khusobek (12th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The inscription of Thuthotep (12th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Ikhernofret stela (12th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The inscriptions of Ameniseneb (13th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The stela of Beka - François Chabas
-The Ahmose Memorial (18th dynasty) - K. Sethe
-The biography of Ahmose Pen-nekhbet (18th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The biography of the admiral Ahmose, son of Abana (18th dynasty)
-The stela of Nebwawi (18th dynasty) - K. Sethe
-The biography of Amenemhab (18th dynasty) - P. Virey
-The inscription of the royal scribe Amenhotep (18th dynasty) - A. H. Gardiner
-Inscriptions of Amenhotep, son of Hapu (18th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The autobiography of Bekenkhonsu (19th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The stela of Rudamen (23th dynasty) - J. Berlandini
-The stela of Besmut (26th dynasty) - R. el Sayed
-The inscription of the general Psamtik (Saite Period) - J. J. Clère
-The inscription of Nesuhor (26th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The stela of Besmut (26th dynasty) - R. el Sayed
-The inscription of Udjahorresne (26th dynasty) - P. Le Page Renouf
-The petition of Pediese (6th century BCE)
-The biographical inscription of Petosiris (4th century BCE) - M. Lichtheim
-The inscription of Hor-nefer (c. 300 BCE) - H. Wild
 

Documents, records, and letters concerning legal, economic, and personal matters

-An Old Kingdom judgment: Sobek-hotep vs. Tchau, (6th dynasty) - After the text on the Thesaurus Linguæ Ægyptiæ website
-The Heqanakht papyri, (12th dynasty) - - After texts on the Thesaurus Linguæ Ægyptiæ website
-The contracts of Hepdjefi, (12th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Petrie Papyri: Legal documents - Memorandum of price of services (12th dynasty) - F. Ll. Griffith
-Petrie Papyri: Legal documents - Conveyance by Mery (12th dynasty) - F. Ll. Griffith
-Petrie Papyri: Legal documents - The wills of Ankh-ren and Uah (12th dynasty) - F. Ll. Griffith
-Petrie Papyri: Legal documents - Land allocation (12th dynasty) - F. Ll. Griffith
-Petrie Papyri: Legal documents - Statement of Claim (12th dynasty) - F. Ll. Griffith
-Petrie Papyri: Legal documents - Enumeration of the persons composing the Middle Kingdom household of Kha-kau-Ra (12th dynasty) - F. Ll. Griffith
- Legal records concerning land (Old Kingdom, Ptolemaic Period)
-Legal records concerning property (Old Kingdom, New Kingdom, Ptolemaic Period)
-Quarry inauguration under Ahmose I (18th dynasty) - K. Sethe
-Records of legal proceedings at Deir el Medine (New Kingdom) - T. G. H. James
-Will of Nau-nakht (20th dynasty) - Jaroslav Cerny
-The Inscriptions of Mes, A Contribution to the Study of Egyptian Judicial Procedure (New Kingdom) - Alan H. Gardiner
-Letter concerning an extramarital relationship (20th dynasty)
-Records of the harem conspiracy against Ramses III - Judicial Turin Papyrus, Rollin Papyrus and Lee Papyrus (20th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-An investigation into tomb robberies held under Ramses IX - Abbott Papyrus (20th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Ramesside tomb robberies: the Amherst Papyrus and the Turin Fragment (20th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Ramesside tomb robberies: the Mayer Papyri (20th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-An adoption papyrus (20th dynasty) - A. H. Gardiner
-Letter by Djehuti-mesu to Bu-teh-Amen concerning running an estate (20th dynasty) - After I. Hafemann
-A letter by the scribe Djehuti-mesu concerning a joke and the reaction to it (20th dynasty) - After I. Hafemann
-Letter concerning an extramarital sexual relationship (20th dynasty) - After I. Hafemann
-The Will of Amonkhau in Favor of His Second Wife (c. 1100 BCE)
-Trial by oracle (21st dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Letters concerning livestock and agriculture (21st dynasty) - Sarah Israelit-Groll
-Promissory note (22nd dynasty) - Georg Möller
-The Donation Stela of the Chief of Mendes Hornakht (22nd dynasty) - After R. K. Ritner
- Aramaic Papyri from Elephantine (27th dynasty) - Pritchard ANE
-The Naukratis Decree (380 BCE) - G. Maspero; M. Lichtheim
-The Demotic Legal Code of Hermopolis West: Annuity and inheritance laws (Ptolemaic Period) - Girgis Mattha
-A taxcollectors' oath (Ptolemaic Period)
-Procès verbal from the Ptolemaic Period - Herbert Thompson
-Marriage contracts (Graeco-Roman Period)
-Divorce agreements (Graeco-Roman Period)
-Allotment of crown lands to soldiers and their rents in Ptolemaic times - Herbert Thompson
-Documents concerning Ptolemaic religious associations
-Demotic papyri relating to economic aspects of religious life in the Ptolemaic Period - Herbert Thompson
-Graeco-Roman tax-receipts - Sten V. Wangstedt
 

Historical, political writings, official accounts, decrees

-A decree of Neferirkare Kakai exempting the personnel of a temple from corvée duties (5th dynasty) - After M. A. Moret
-Letter from Count Iru to General Merrenakht (6th dynasty)
-The decree of Demedjibtawy protecting mortuary foundations and exempting them from dues and duties (8th dynasty) - After M. A. Moret
-Extracts from an official journal (12th dynasty) - F. Ll. Griffith
-The Semna stelae of Senusret III (12th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The quarrel between Apepi I and Sekenere (15th dynasty) - Edward F. Wente
-The Coptos decree of Nubkheprure-Intef (SIP) - J. H. Breasted
-The Kamose inscription (17th dynasty) - D. Redford
-The Tempest Stela of Ahmose I (18th dynasty)
-The Donation Stela of Ahmose I (18th dynasty)
-An Egyptian account of the battle of Megiddo (18th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Armant Stela of Thutmose III (18th dynasty)
-The Sphinx Stela of Thutmose IV (18th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Gebel Barkal Stela of Thutmose IV (18th dynasty) - After K. Sethe
-The Konosso Inscription of Thutmose IV (18th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Asiatic campaigns of Amenhotep II (18th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Semna stela of the viceroy Merimose (18th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Records of two marriages of Amenhotep III (18th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Restoration Stela (Tutankhamen) (18th dynasty) - J. B. Pritchard
-The Great Edict of Horemheb (18th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The 400 year stela (19th dynasty) - R. Monfort
-Commemorative Stela of the Ramesside family (400 year stela) (19th dynasty) - J. B. Pritchard
-Stelae of Ramses I and Seti I at Buhen (19th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Inscriptions of the goldmines at Rhedesieh and Kuban (19th dynasty) - S. Birch
-From the journal of a frontier official under Seti I (19th dynasty)
-The Merneptah Hymn (19th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The Pursuit of Runaway Slaves (19th dynasty)
-An Egyptian account of the battle of Kadesh - The Poem of Pentaur (19th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted, W. M. F. Petrie
-Letter of Panbesa (19th dynasty) - C. W. Goodwin
-The peace treaty between Ramses II and Hattusili III (19th dynasty)
-The marriage stela of Ramses II (19th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Records of the strike at Deir el Medina under Ramses III (20th dynasty) - P. J. Frandsen
-Koller Papyrus: A letter concerning Nubian tribute (New Kingdom) - A. H. Gardiner
-Papyrus Harris: The Libyan wars of Ramses III (20th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Letter by Ramses-nakht concerning supplies for the troops protecting gold miners in Nubia (20th dynasty)
-Stela of King Nesbanebded (Smendes I), commemorating the re-opening of the quarry at Gebelein (21st dynasty) - G. Maspero
-Stela of the Banishment (21st dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Stela of endowments of Sheshonq - J. H. Breasted
-The Stela of Piye (25th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The adoption stela of Nitocris, daughter of Psamtik I (26th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-The stela of Ankhenesneferibre (26th dynasty) - J. H. Breasted
-Hammamat inscriptions (From the Old to the New Kingdom)
-Decree of the satrap Ptolemy Lagides (Ptolemaic Period) - S. M. Drach
-The Great Mendes Stela (Ptolemaic Period) - S. Birch
-The Canopus Decree (Ptolemaic Period) - S. Birch
-The Greek section of the Rosetta Stone (Ptolemaic Period)
-Translations of the Greek and demotic sections of the Rosetta Stone (Ptolemaic Period)
Decrees of King Ptolemy VIIIDecrees of King Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II, 28th April 118 BCE
-The potter's oracle (Ptolemaic Period)
 

Miscellaneous

Letters to the DeadLetters to the Dead (Old Kingdom, First Intermediate Period)
Harper's layHarper's lay (c. 2000 BCE) - D. Mackenzie, 1907
royal elephant huntsAccounts of royal elephant hunts (New Kingdom) - K. Sethe, J. H. Breasted
The Pleasures of Fishing and FowlingThe Pleasures of Fishing and Fowling (Middle Kingdom)
Scarab inscriptions of Amenhotep IIIScarab inscriptions of Amenhotep III (New Kingdom) - S. Birch
New Kingdom love poetryNew Kingdom love poetry
plan of the tomb of Ramses IVContemporary plan of the tomb of Ramses IV (20th dynasty) - Lepsius
The ushabtis of NeskhonsThe ushabtis of Neskhons (21st dynasty) - After J. Cerny
On mourning and burialOn mourning and burial
The daily routine of the pharaohsDiodorus Siculus: The daily routine of the pharaohs
Diodorus Siculus on Egyptian MedicineDiodorus Siculus on Egyptian Medicine
Diodorus Siculus on the Egyptian Judicial SystemDiodorus Siculus on the Egyptian Judicial System
Pliny the Elder: The Geography of EgyptPliny the Elder: The Geography of Egypt
The last funerary stela of a Buchis bullThe last funerary stela of a Buchis bull (340 CE) - After Jean-Claude Grenier

 

 

Egyptological texts

Two searchable books by W.M.Flinders Petrie: 'Kahun, Gurob, and Hawara'; 'Illahun, Kahun and Gurob'.

 


 

- -Index of Topics
-Main Index and Search Page
 
Offsite links(Opening in a new window)
I do not assume any responsibility for the availability or content of these websites
 
-Ancient Egyptian Literature
-Abzu, The Oriental Institute at the University of Chicago.
-EOS, the University of Chicago library
-The Perseus Digital Library
-Gallica, bibliothèque numérique, Bibliothèque nationale de France
-Virtuelle Fachbibliothek Ägyptologie, Ruprecht Karls Universität, Heidelberg
-Literatur (Texts in German translation)
Ancient Egyptian Language Discussion ListAncient Egyptian Language Discussion List (AEL)
Le payrus d'AniLe payrus d'Ani
Sacred Egyptian textsSacred Egyptian texts
Digitalisierte Akademieschriften und SchriftenDigitalisierte Akademieschriften und Schriften zur Geschichte der Königlich Preußischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
Ancient Egyptian LiteratureThe Ancient Egyptian Literature Site
Textos e inscripcionesTextos e inscripciones del antiguo Egipto
Isle of FireIsle of Fire by Jacob Rabinowitz
Tebtunis papyriThe Apis Project of Columbia University
Menches PapersThe Menches Papers (Columbia University)
Richard LepsiusRichard Lepsius, Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien
Pyramid TextsThe Pyramid Texts Online
Pyramid TextsThe Pyramid Texts
L'esprit de l'ancienne EgypteL'esprit de l'ancienne Egypte
Babylonian, Sumerian and Egyptian LiteratureBabylonian, Sumerian and Egyptian Literature
Thesaurus Linguae AegyptiaeThesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae
EEFDigitized Collections of Ancient Egyptian Source Texts
St Andrews CorpusSt Andrews Corpus
Thesaurus Linguae AegyptiaeÄgypten - Die Sprache der Pharaonen: Ausgewählte Texte (Hieroglyphs, transcriptions and translations into German)
 

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