Ancient Egypt: History and culture
Annotated ancient Egyptian texts on mourning and burial: Excerpts from the Pyramid Texts, Song of the litterbearers, the inscription of Sebni, the Admonitions of Ipuwer, the Tale of Sinuhe, Snake charm, the instruction of King Amenemhet I for his Son Senusret I, Tale of Two Brothers, Papyrus of Nu, inscription in the tomb of Nefersekheru, the Mortuary Stela of the Priest Psamtik, the accounts of Herodotus, the Great Mendes Stela, the Canopus Decree, the King's Tale, Diodorus Siculus on funerary usages and judgments of the dead, Plutarch: Isis and Osiris
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Mourning and burial

From The Pyramid Texts

The het-bird comes, the falcon comes; they are Isis and Nephthys, they come embracing their brother, Osiris. ... Weep for thy brother, Isis! Weep for thy brother, Nephthys! Weep for thy brother. Isis sits, her arms upon her head; Nephthys has seized the tips of her breasts because of her brother.
Pyr. §§ 1280-82
J. H. Breasted Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt, p.27
-Weep for thy brother: After Seth had killed Osiris and thrown his body into the Nile, Isis and Nephthys went to look for their dead brother.
-arms upon her head ... seized the tips of her breasts: gestures of mourning

Song of the litter bearers

The litter bearer walks slowly when he sets out
Descend to the litter bearer, who is safe and sound!
Descend to the litter bearer who is healthy!
O Djau, who is on the sand
Do not give a present and prevent a present being given to NN.
Make (him) a Great One, like one who is being loved!
More beloved is she (i.e. the litter) when she is empty than when she is full.

After Hartwig Altenmüller, "Das Sänftenlied" [5]


From the Old Kingdom a number of songs of litter bearers are known, the funerary context of which is not always certain, nor is their exact meaning. Van Walsem translates as follows:
I go down to the carried one, that I may be prosperous,
I go down to the carried one, that I may be healthy.
(O) Sokar, who is upon his sand, grant that NN be protected.
I act much like I wish;
I prefer her to be full than to be empty.

Tomb of Ipy, reign of Pepi I
translation: van Walsem, "Sense and Sensibility" in Martin Fitzenreiter, Michael Herb (eds.), IBAES Vol.VI 2006, p.302

-Djau: the god Sokar
-NN: the deceased

From The Inscription of Sebni

When I descended to give information ////////// from the bend, behold, Iri [came] from the court, [as I] came, to embalm the count, wearer of the royal seal, sole companion, ritual priest, this Mekhu. He brought /// /// embalmers, the chief ritual priest, jmj-wAb, /// sHD, the mourners and all offerings of the [White] House. He brought festival oil from the double White House and secret things from the double wAb.t-house, /// /// from the aHA-house, clothing of the double White House, and all the burial equipment which is issued from the court, like the issuance for the hereditary prince, Meru.

J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part One, § 370

From The Admonitions of Ipuwer

None indeed sail north to Byblos today. What shall we do for pine trees for our mummies? Free men are buried with their produce, nobles are embalmed with their oil as far as Crete. They come no more.
Lo, those who were entombed are cast on high ground, Embalmers' secrets are thrown away.

M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Vol. I, p.152f

From The Tale of Sinuhe

In year 30, second month of the first season, on the 7th day,
Departed the god onto his horizon,
The king of Upper and Lower Egypt, Sehetepibre.
He ascended [to] heaven, joined with the sun;
The divine limbs were mingled with him that begat him.
In the court, silence [/// /// /// ///].
The great double doors were closed
The court sat (in mourning),
The people [bowed down in] silence.

J.H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part One, § 490

Think of the day of burial, the passing into reveredness. A night is made for you with ointments and wrappings from the hand of Tait. A funeral procession is made for you on the day of burial; the mummy case is of gold, its head of lapis lazuli. The sky is above you as you lie in the hearse, oxen drawing you, musicians going before you. The dance of the mww-dancers is done at the door of your tomb; the offering-list is read to you; sacrifice is made before your offering-stone. Your tomb-pillars, made of white stone, are among (those of) the royal children.
You shall not die abroad! Not shall Asiatics inter you. You shall not be wrapped in the skin of a ram to serve as your coffin. Too long a roaming of the earth! Think of your corpse, come back!

M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, Vol.1 pp. 229f.


Reign of Pepi II (c. 2279-2181 BCE)
-White House: the treasury
-festival oil from the double White House and secret things from the double wAb.t-house: A great many different substances have been used in mummification over the millennia: various oils like camphor and juniper oil, resins (e.g. of conifers, pistacia), myrrh, bees wax, balsam, coniferous pitch and even animal fats. Some of these substances, animal fats for instance, cannot have been very conducive to the embalming process, while the use of others, such as water repellant wax and resins which have bactericidal qualities, became ever more common as embalmers noticed their beneficial effect (S. Buckley [1], R. Evershed). The story of a baby immersed in a jar of honey is apocryphal and should not be believed.
Mourners - Source: Jon Bodsworth
Mourning women
11th dynasty
Source: Jon Bodsworth. Excerpt

-Departed the god onto his horizon: the king died
-In the court, silence...: M. Lichtheim: Then the residence was hushed; hearts grieved; the great portals were shut; the courtiers were head-on-knee; the people moaned.
-Tait: Goddess of weaving. The bandages were a divine protection for the mummy.
-mww-dancers: various kinds of dancing men involved in the burial procession [3]. Others read this as nm.w, dwarves.
Muu dancers
Three muu-dancers wearing reed crowns facing a funerary priest
Tomb of Tetiki at Thebes, New Kingdom

-die abroad: The fear of being buried abroad is a recurring theme in Egyptian writings, cf. the Tale of the Shipwrecked Sailor, The Inscriptions of Sebni, and The Inscriptions of Pepinakht.
-not be wrapped in the skin of a ram: By this time in Egyptian history, being interred in such a way would not have assured the continuing existence of the deceased.

From a Snake charm

He ties the knot against the fatigued ones before his thighs (on) the day of cutting off his dishevelled hair.

Coffin Texts, spell 640 [6]

Middle Kingdom
During mourning one did not look after one's hair. One did not cut it, and men did not shave.
-the fatigued ones: the dead

From The Instruction of King Amenemhet I for his Son Senusret I

Make for me mourning such as has not been heard,
For so great a combat had not yet been seen!

M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Vol. I, p.136f

Middle Kingdom

From A Tale of Two Brothers

Then he went away to the Valley of the Pine; and his elder brother went to his home, his hand on his head and smeared with dirt. When he reached his house, he killed his wife, cast her to the dogs, and sat mourning for his young brother.

M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Vol. II, p.207


New Kingdom
The Tale of Anpu and Bata
-he: Bata
-his elder brother: Anpu
-his hand on his head and smeared with dirt: gestures of mourning (See the account of Herodotus below)

From the Papyrus of Ani

I am with the mourners [and with] the women who tear out their hair and make lament for Osiris in Taui-Rekhti, proving true the words of Osiris before his enemies.
E. A. Wallis Budge, The Papyrus of Ani
New Kingdom

Papyrus of Nu

I set out for Busiris.
I have seen Osiris.
I pull my hair before him.
Nut pulls her hair when she sees me.
The Gods look at me, the Eye of Horus.
Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae, B. Backes ed.: Totenbuchprojekt, Nordrhein-Westfälische Akademie der Wissenschaften => pLondon BM EA 10477 (pNu) => Tb 078


New Kingdom
-pull my hair: pulling one's hair or being dishevelled were gestures of mourning known since the Old Kingdom.

Inscription in the tomb of Nefersekheru

The glib one, silence has befallen him.
The wakeful one is asleep.
The one who took no sleep at night
Is weary every day.
The house of those in the West
Is deep and dark.
There is no door, no window in ti,
No light to brighten,
No north wind to refresh the heart.
They lie forever in sleep
Because of the darkness, even in the daytime (?).
Oh, woe! May the dear one be safe and sound, breathing air!
The one with the booming voice is silent, he does not speak.
The self-aware one is unknowing ...
Those in the West are in difficulty, their condition is bad.
How motionless is the one who has gone to them.
He cannot describe his condition.
He rests in his lonely place,
And eternity is with him in darkness.

Jan Assmann, Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt, Cornell University Press, 2005, p.113

Reign of Ramses II
Dirges like this one, lamenting the death of a person and expressing fear that the deceased would enjoy little happiness in the afterlife, were unusual before the later New Kingdom. They are reminiscent of the mythological lamentations of Isis for her murdered husband and brother Osiris.
The 'official', public attitude towards death was more positive than this personal, private one, marked by grief. Being buried in one's hometown was apparently the highlight of one's life: He arrives at the necropolis with blissful heart (Assmann 2005, p.177)
-house of those in the West: the tomb.

From the Speech of Thothrekh, Son of Petosiris

All my friends mourned for me,
Father and Mother implored Death;
My brothers, they were head-on-knee,
Since I reached this land of deprivation.

M. Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature Vol. III, p.53

4th/3rd century BCE
-head on knee: a posture of mourning
-land of deprivation: originally, the Egyptian afterlife was one of plenty. Thothrekh's attitude may have been infuenced by the Greek tradition, which saw life in the Hades as an existence of unhappy shadows.

From The Mortuary Stela of Priest Psamtik

Year 1, third month of the third season, day 1, under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Uhemibre, Son of Re, Necho.
On this day was born the divine father, Psamtik, begotten of Ahuben, born of Enkhetesi. His good life was 65 years, 10 months, 2 days. Year 27, fourth month of the second season, day 28, was his day of departure from life. He was introduced into the Good House, and he spent 42 days under the hand of Anubis, lord of Tazoser. He was conducted in peace to the beautiful West in the first month of the third season (ninth month) day [///], and his life in the necropolis is forever and ever.

J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Four, § 1028f

Reign of Ahmose II (569-526 BCE)
-Good House: the place of embalmment
-42 days: Breasted himself was unsure about this reading of Leemann's. Psamtik died on day 238 and was buried on day 240+x. As a month counted 30 days the embalmment took 32 days or less.

The account of Herodotus

Their fashions of mourning and of burial are these:
    Whenever any household has lost a man who is of any regard amongst them, the whole number of women of that house forthwith plaster over their heads or even their faces with mud. Then leaving the corpse within the house they go themselves to and fro about the city and beat themselves, with their garments bound up by a girdle and their breasts exposed, and with them go all the women who are related to the dead man, and on the other side the men beat themselves, they too having their garments bound up by a girdle; and when they have done this, they then convey the body to the embalming.
Mourning women, tomb of Ramose
Bare breasted mourners
Tomb of Ramose
Excerpt. Courtesy Jon Bodsworth

-the whole number of women of that house: In addition, unrelated mourners were apparently hired. These female mourners were led by the great (Dr.t wr.t) and the lesser (Dr.t nDs.t) mourner (lit. kite or falcon), two women, probably priestesses, who accompanied the corpse, one walking at its head, the other at its feet, as Isis and Nephthys had done with their brother Osiris.
    In this occupation certain persons employ themselves regularly and inherit this as a craft. These, whenever a corpse is conveyed to them, show to those who brought it wooden models of corpses made like reality by painting, and the best of the ways of embalming they say is that of him whose name I think it impiety to mention when speaking of a matter of such a kind; the second which they show is less good than this and also less expensive; and the third is the least expensive of all. Having told them about this, they inquire of them in which way they desire the corpse of their friend to be prepared. Then they after they have agreed for a certain price depart out of the way, and the others being left behind in the buildings embalm according to the best of these ways thus:
    First with the crooked iron tool they draw out the brain through the nostrils, extracting it partly thus and partly by pouring in drugs; and after this with a sharp stone of Ethiopia they make a cut along the side and take out the whole contents of the belly, and when they have cleared out the cavity and cleansed it with palm-wine they cleanse it again with spices pounded up: then they fill the belly with pure myrrh pounded up and with cassia and other spices except frankincense, and sew it together again. Having so done they keep it for embalming covered up in natron for seventy days, but for a longer time than this it is not permitted to embalm it; and when the seventy days are past, they wash the corpse and roll its whole body up in fine linen cut into bands, smearing these beneath with gum, which the Egyptians use generally instead of glue. Then the kinsfolk receive it from them and have a wooden figure made in the shape of a man, and when they have had this made they enclose the corpse, and having shut it up within, they store it then in a sepulchral chamber, setting it to stand upright against the wall.
    Thus they deal with the corpses which are prepared in the most costly way; but for those who desire the middle way and wish to avoid great cost they prepare the corpse as follows:
    Having filled their syringes with the oil which is got from cedar-wood, with this they forthwith fill the belly of the corpse, and this they do without having either cut it open or taken out the bowels, but they inject the oil by the breech, and having stopped the drench from returning back they keep it then the appointed number of days for embalming, and on the last of the days they let the cedar oil come out from the belly, which they before put in; and it has such power that it brings out with it the bowels and interior organs of the body dissolved; and the natron dissolves the flesh, so that there is left of the corpse only the skin and the bones. When they have done this they give back the corpse at once in that condition without working upon it any more.
    The third kind of embalming, by which are prepared the bodies of those who have less means, is as follows:
They cleanse out the belly with a purge and then keep the body for embalming during the seventy days, and at once after that they give it back to the bringers to carry away.
    The wives of men of rank when they die are not given at once to be embalmed, nor such women as are very beautiful or of greater regard than others, but on the third or fourth day after their death (and not before) they are delivered to the embalmers. They do so about this matter in order that the embalmers may not abuse their women, for they say that one of them was taken once doing so to the corpse of a woman lately dead, and his fellow-craftsman gave information.
    Whenever any one, either of the Egyptians themselves or of strangers, is found to have been carried off by a crocodile or brought to his death by the river itself, the people of any city by which he may have been cast up on land must embalm him and lay him out in the fairest way they can and bury him in a sacred burial-place, nor may any of his relations or friends besides touch him, but the priests of the Nile themselves handle the corpse and bury it as that of one who was something more than man.

Herodotus Histories: Euterpe § 84

...the Egyptians, who wear no hair at any other time, when they lose a relative, let their beards and the hair of their heads grow long.

Herodotus Histories: Euterpe § 36

-persons employ themselves: Embalmers were often ostracized socially, though cases of embalmers (seemingly overseers) who were also priests such as Harwa, are known: The prince, count, royal seal-bearer; true, beloved King's friend; keeper of the diadem of the God's Adoress; royal servant in the royal harem; embalmer-priest-of-Anubis of the God's Wife; prophet of the God's Adoress, Amenirdis.
-inherit this as a craft: Professions were generally inherited, as people learned their business from their parents.
-draw out the brain through the nostrils:
X-ray of skull of Tutankhamen
X-ray of the skull of Tutankhamen. On the right in the skull one can see a somewhat triangular fragment of bone which was broken off, when the hook was inserted into the brain through a nostril.
-the whole contents of the belly: The inner organs, except the heart which was left in place, were wrapped separately and placed in canopic jars.
Canopic jars, 22nd dynasty - Source: Jon Bodsworth
Canopic jars, 22nd dynasty
Source: Jon Bodsworth. Excerpt

-Having filled their syringes with the oil which is got from cedar-wood: According to a report in LiveScience (, accessed 23rd March 2013) the use of cedar oil enemas was not as widespread as Herodotus seems to suggest
-sew it together: in royal mummies the place of incision was generally covered with a fine sheet of gold, as were the fingers and toes.
-wooden figure made in the shape of a man: Only the very richest could afford stone sarcophagi and even they are known to have used somebody else's sarcophagus that wasn't needed.
-the natron dissolves the flesh: It doesn't, of course. Natron and salt remove the water from the tissues, reducing their volume.
-who have less means: Only a minority of Egyptians could afford even the cheapest embalming. The corpses of some of the poor who were buried in hot dry sand underwent a natural mummification through desiccation.

From the Great Mendes Stela

In the year 15, month Pachons (the 10th day was appointed for the Queen's holy consecration and her introduction into) the temple after the divine Lady had received the holy anointing, during an interval of four days, she reappeared as a consecrated soul, and there were rejoicings for her in Anep, when Her festival was solemnized, to enliven, her holy soul at the place of the living Rams, as was always customary to the Rams of all gods from ancient times unto this day.

The Great Mendes Stela

-In the year 15: of the reign of Ptolemy II, 270 BCE
-Queen: Arsinoe II (r. 278-270), wife of Ptolemy II
-place of the living Rams: Mendes harboured the sanctuary of Banebdjedet.

From the Canopus Decree

So shall be ordered a feast and procession for the Queen Berenike, the daughter of the Benevolent Gods, in the temples of both lands in their extent on month Tybi, from the 17th day, when happened the procession for her, and purification on account of her mourning for four days.

The Canopus Decree

-the Benevolent Gods: Ptolemy III (246-221 BCE) and Berenice II
-Tybi: 16th November - 15th December

From the King's Tale

The death of the pharaoh occurred in the lands of the East of Tajwamenenehes. I did not hesitate to go to the gates of the place of embalmment. Behold, mourning [was great] [there].
I did not drink any wine. I did not eat any meat. I did not wash with cold water in order not to show the beauty of my limbs. Bread from ///?/// (and) well-water served as my nourishment daily. I did not drink any water from the great sea, the great river of Egypt.
I spent the 70 days (of embalmment) being by the doors of the place of embalmment (and) copying a papyrus roll, a written roll, a hymn to breathing (i.e. a "Book of Breathing") for the divine wrapping (?) of the Osiris-king Pharaoh Psamtik.

The King's Tale, pBerlin 13588
after a translation on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae website

The tale dates to the Greek Period.

Diodorus Siculus: Funerary usages and judgments of the dead

Meanwhile, the marvellous peculiarities of their customs are demonstrated quite strikingly in their funerary usages. When someone of theirs has died all his relatives and friends walk through the city, lamenting, their head covered with earth, until the corpse has been buried. They abstain from bathing, from wine and any tasty food, and from pretty clothing as well. There are three kinds of burials: the most expensive, the medium and the cheapest. The first is said to cost one silver talent, the second twenty mines, and the last an altogether insignificant amount.
Those who have to care for the corpses are experts who have inherited this profession. They bring the relatives of the deceased a list of prices for all the expenses and ask how they wish the burial should be performed. When everything is agreed upon they take the deceased with them and hand him over to people hired for the purpose of treating him according to custom.
  Diodorus was aware of the writings of Herodotus, and had a very low opinion of them. Still, he may have done some cribbing, and it is impossible to know how much of his own account is owed to the Greek traveller who had visited Egypt almost half a millennium before him.
-talent: about 25 kg to the Greeks
-mine: 1/60 of a talent
At first the corpse is laid on the floor and the so-called 'mark-writer' has to mark on the left side the spot which is to be cut open. Then the inciser cuts the flesh with an Ethiopian stone as far as custom ordains; at that moment he flees hurriedly and those present chase after him, throwing stones and cursing him, as if they wanted to burden him with the guilt, because they believe that they have to abhor anybody who touches the body of a fellow citizen violently and wounds him, or causes injury in any way.
Those who apply the ointment to the corpse on the other hand are thought worthy of honour and respect; they share the company of the priests, and, as holy men, their entry into the temple is not barred. When they are gathered for the treatment of the opened up corpse, one of them reaches with his hand through the incision into the thoracic cavity and removes everything but the kidneys and the heart. Another cleans every single piece of viscera by rinsing it with palm wine and fragrant water. The whole body is carefully anointed, first with cedar oil and the like for thirty days, then myrrh and cinnamon are applied and other substances which not just protect from decay but also spread fragrance; and when they return the deceased to the relatives all the separate parts of the body are preserved intact, even the hairs on the eyelids and the eyebrows remain. The form of the body is unaltered and the features are easily recognizable.
-he flees hurriedly: not mentioned by Herodotus, this may be a late development.
-wounds him: Nor did the ancient Egyptians perform any but the most superficial kinds of surgery, such as circumcision.
Thus many Egyptians preserve the corpses of their forebears in sumptuous chambers and look into the faces of people who had been dead for many generations before they themselves were born. It must be a unique pleasure to be able to perceive visually size and contours of the body or even the features of the deceased as if they were still alive among us.
-perceive visually size and contours of the body or even the features of the deceased: After wrapping the body in many layers of linen and putting it into its sarcophagus, descendants would not have been able to perceive much of their deceased ancestor.
When the deceased is about to be buried, the members of his family announce the day of the funeral to the judges and to his relatives and friends, with the words: "... (here the name of the deceased is inserted) wants to cross the lake."
Then more than forty judges come, sit in a half circle on a stand on the far side of the lake and the boat, built for this purpose by especially appointed people, is lowered into the water. A ferryman, called by the Egyptians Charon in their own tongue, is standing in it. This custom is said to have inspired Orpheus, who got to know it on his travels to Egypt, to invent his fables of the underworld, which are thus partially imitation, partially his own invention. Details about this will be mentioned further on. The barge is pushed into the lake, and anyone may bring a complaint against the deceased before the coffin in which he lies is lowered into the barge. If an accuser appears and proves that the deceased has lived a life of wickedness, the judges pass judgement and deny the corpse its solemn burial. But if the accusations are found to be unfounded, then the accuser is severely punished. If no plaintiff at all shows up or he who did accuse is recognized as a calumniator, then the relatives cease mourning and begin praising the deceased. They do not mention his origins as is customary among the Greeks, as the Egyptians believe all to be of equally noble descent. But they do tell the story of his education and formation since childhood and then describe his piety and righteousness, his moderation and other virtues he displayed in adulthood; lastly they implore the gods of the underworld to receive him in the abodes of the pious. The populace join in the praises and aid in glorifying the deceased who goes on living among the pious in the underworld.
If the family has its own burial vault the corpse is laid at rest in the tomb appointed for him. Those who do not have a tomb of their own add a new room to their house and place the coffin upright by the most solid wall. Even when the deceased may not be buried because they have been accused or they are pledged as security for a debt, they are left in their own house. It happens sometimes that their descendants, having become wealthy, pay off their debt to the creditors or justify them before their accusers and then honour them by giving them a magnificent burial.

Diodorus Siculus Historic Library Vol 1, Chap. 91f
after a German translation by Julius Friedrich Wurm [2]

  Diodorus moves the Judgment of the Dead from the afterlife to this world.
-Charon: According to the Greek tradition Charon ferried the dead across the river Acheron (Styx), after being paid an obol, a small coin worth one sixth of a drachma.
Egyptian tradition was a bit different, but the deceased had to overcome watery obstacles too: Unas implored the ferryman divine ferryman Kherty in the Pyramid Texts, Utterance 300: O Kherti of Nezat, ferryman of the jqh.t-barge, made by Khnum, bring this (i.e. the boat) to Unas. Unas is Sokar of Ro-setau.
Generally, it was Aken and Mahaf who ferried the deceased to the underworld. Nemty was another ferryman deity.
Boats played a large part in the afterlife of an Egyptian as they did in this world. The Chapter of Breathing the Air and of Having Power over Water in Khert-Neter of the Book of the Dead contains a spell for going into, after coming forth from Khert-Neter of [the Beautiful Amentet] which contained the names of the ferry boat and its parts: "Assembler of souls" is the name of my ferry-boat. "Those who make the hair to bristle" is the name of the oars. "Sert" ("Goad") is the name of the hold. "Steering straight in the middle" is the name of the rudder; likewise, [the boat] is a type of my being borne onward in the lake. Let there be given unto me vessels of milk, and cakes, and loaves of bread, and cups of drink, and flesh, in the Temple of Anpu.
Budge The Papyrus of Ani
-do not have a tomb of their own: Egyptians who could not afford their own were sometimes buried in tombs whose owners had died centuries before (intrusive burials).

From Plutarch: Isis and Osiris

Isis, when the tidings reached her, at once cut off one of her tresses and put on a garment of mourning in a place where the city still bears the name of Kopto.
Part I, chap. 14

-tidings: news of the death of Osiris
-cut off one of her tresses: Egyptian women, unlike many in the Mediterranean, did not crop their hair upon marrying. In hieroglyphs xAr.t, meaning widow, includes the hieroglyph for a strand of hair.[4]

[4] Alison E. Rautman, Reading the Body: Representations and Remains in the Archaeological Record University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000, pp.194f.
[5] as quoted in Günter Burkard, Heinz-Josef Thissen, Einführung in die altägyptische Literaturgeschichte: Altes und Mittleres Reich, LIT Verlag Münster, 2007, p.46
[6] After a transliteration and German translation on the Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae website: Projekt "Digital-Heka" (Leipzig) => Texte DigitalHeka => Schlangenzauber Mittleres Reich => Sargtexte und Verwandtes => Sa"rge MR => T2Be => CT640

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-[1] Stephen Buckley
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Diodor's von Sicilien[3] The Mysterious Muu and the Dance They Do by Greg Reeder
Surgical procedures during ancient Egyptian mummificationSurgical procedures during ancient Egyptian mummification by Bob Brier and Ronald S. Wade

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