Ancient Egypt: History and culture
Annotated ancient Egyptian texts: The contracts of Hepdjefi
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The contracts of Hepdjefi

    The hereditary prince and count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi; he says to his mortuary priest: "Behold, all these things, which I have secured by contract from these priests, are under thy charge. For, behold, it is the mortuary priest of a man, who should maintain his possessions and maintain his offerings.
    Behold, I have informed thee; (as for) these things, which I have given to these (wab)-priests, as compensation for these things, which they have given to me, take heed lest anything among them be lacking. (As for) every word of my lists, which I have given to them, let thy son hear it, thy heir, who shall act as my mortuary priest. Behold, I have endowed thee with fields, with people, with cattle, with gardens (and) with everything, as every count of Siut (does), in order that thou mayest make offerings to me with contented heart. Thou standest over all my possessions, which I have put under thy hand. Behold, they are before thee in writing. These things shall belong to thy particular son, whom thou lovest, who shall act as my mortuary priest, before (thy) other children, as food which I have [bequeathed (?)] to him; not permitting that he divide them to his children, (but) according to this word which I have commanded thee."
    Hepdjefi was nomarch at Siut under the 12th dynasty. He concluded ten contracts with the priesthood of Wepwawet to ensure that his needs in the afterlife would not be neglected.
  it is the mortuary priest...: Most people could not afford such a mortuary priest. It was generally the eldest son who took care of the offerings for his parents. He was often awarded a special portion of the inheritance for this purpose.
  let thy son hear it, thy heir...: offices, clerical and secular, were generally passed on from father to son.
  with people: Peasants were possibly serf-like, 'belonging to the field,' or perhaps rather like tenants paying their rent in the guise of a "gift" to the lord of the manor on New Year's Day, cf. the second contract.
  not permitting that he divide them...: The usage was that possessions, usufructs, at times even offices, were divided among all the heirs. Hepdjefi is trying to prevent this.
    Contract with the count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi, triumphant, made, with the lay (wab) priests of the temple of Upwawet, lord of Siut, to wit:
    There shall be given to him: A white loaf per individual wab priest, for his statue, which is in the temple of Anubis, lord of Rekreret, on the first of the five intercalary days, when Upwawet, lord of Siut, proceeds to his temple.
    He hath given to them (i.e. the wab priests) for it his share in the bull offered to Upwawet, lord of Siut, in his temple, when he proceeds to it, consisting of his quarter, due to the count.
    Lo, he spake to them, saying: "Behold ye, I have given to you this quarter due to me from this temple, in order that this white bread may be endowed, which ye give to me."
    Lo, they had given to him the inherited portion of the bull, for his statue, (which is) in charge of his mortuary priest, before he gave to them of his quarter.
    Lo, they were satisfied with it.
    First contract
 
  white loaf: the colour white was closely connected with anything funerary: white clothes, white sandals, white bread.
  due to the count: A nomarch cannot give away possessions belonging to the office of the nomarch in perpetuity. Such a decision can be annulled by any future nomarch.
    Contract with the count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi, triumphant, made, with the lay (wab) priests of the temple of Upwawet, lord of Siut, to wit:
    There shall be given to him:
    (a) White bread by each one among them, for his statue, (which is) in charge of his mortuary priest, in the first month of the first season on the first day, New Year's Day, when the house makes gifts to its lord, when the fire is kindled in the temple.
    (b) And they shall go forth following his mortuary priest, at his glorification, until they reach the northern corner of the temple, as they do, when they glorify their own noble ones, on the day of kindling the fire.
    He hath given to them for it a heket of grain front every field of the estate, from the first of the harvest of the count's estate; as every citizen of Siut does, from the first of his harvest Now, behold, be begins with having his every peasant give it into this temple, from the first of his field.
    Lo, he said: Behold, ye know that, as for anything which any official or any citizen gives into the temple, from the first of his harvest, it is not agreeable to him, that there should be lack therein. Therefore shall no future count diminish to future priests, that which is secured by contract of another count. This grain shall belong to the lay priests, each by himself; no priest, who shall give to me this white bread, shall divide (it) to his colleagues; because they give this white bread, each by himself.
    Lo, they were satisfied with it.
    Second contract
 
  gifts: Exchanges of gifts were an important part of barter economies. In this instance there was seemingly no reciprocity. The "gifts" may have been payments of rent.
  glorification: Probably chants in honour of the deceased
  heket: HqAt, almost 5 litres.
  from the first of the harvest: Many peoples offer the first fruit of their harvest to their gods, cf. the biqurim of the Hebrews.
  citizen: The nDs, the "small" man of the people, ranked above the peasants who often worked his fields while he lived in town.
  official: To a nobleman like the nomarch the officials, while distinct from the ordinary citizen, were probably considered to belong to the same social stratum. An ordinary citizen was not likely to make such a gaffe and consider himself to be an official's equal. Cf. the social classes in ancient Egypt
  no future count diminish to future priests: as mentioned above possessions belonging to an office could not be alienated. Hepdjefi had to hope that future nomarchs would respect his decision, not very likely in the long run, as any such policy would end up by severely impoverishing the office itself.
    Contract which the count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi, triumphant, made, with the official body of the temple, to-wit:
    There shall be given to him bread and beer in the first month of the first season, on the eighteenth day, the day of the Wag-feast. List of that which shall be given:
Register of NamesQbj-jars of beerFlat loavesWhite loaves
Superior prophet440010
Announcer22005
Matter of secret things22005
[Keeper of the wardrobe (?)]22005
Overseer of the storehouse22005
Keeper of the wide hall22005
Overseer of the house of the ka22005
Scribe of the temple22005
Scribe of the altar22005
Ritual priest22005

    He hath given to them for it, 22 temple-days, from his property of his paternal estate, but not from the property of the count's estate: 4 days to the superior prophet, and 2 days to each one among them.
    Lo, he hath said to them: "Behold, as for a temple-day, it is 1/360 of a year. When ye therefore divide everything that comes into this temple, consisting of bread, of beer, and of meat for each day, that which makes 1/360 of the bread, of the beer, and of everything which comes into this temple, is the unit in these temple-days which I have given to you. Behold, it is my property of my paternal estate, but it is not the property of the count's estate; for I am a priest's (wab) son, like each one of you. Behold, these days shall belong to every future official staff of the temple, since they deliver to me this bread and beer, which they give to me."
    Lo, they were satisfied with it.
    Third contract
 
  my property of my paternal estate: which he can dispose of as he sees fit.
    Contract which the count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi, triumphant, made with the lay priests of Upwawet, lord of Siut, to wit:
    There shall be given to him:
    (a) A white loaf per each individual among them, for his statue, which is in the temple, in the first month of the first season, on the eighteenth day, the day of the Wag-feast.
    (b) And they shall go forth, following his mortuary priest, at his glorification, when the fire is kindled for him, as they do when they glorify their own noble ones, on the day of kindling the fire in the temple. Now, this white bread shall be under the charge of my mortuary priest.
    He hath given to them for it:
    (a) A khar of fuel for every bull, and an uhet of fuel for every goat, which they give into the storehouse of the count, when each bull and each goat is offered to the temple, as ancient (dues) which they give into the storehouse of the count. Lo, he hath remitted it to them, not collecting it from them.
    (b) And hath given to them 23 jars of beer and 3,200 flat loaves which the official body of the temple give to him in the first month of the first season, on the eighteenth day, as compensation, for their giving white bread per each individual among them, from that which is due to them from the temple, and (as compensation for) his glorification.
    Lo, he spake to them, saying: "If this fuel be reckoned against you by a future count; behold, this bread and beer shall not be diminished, which the official body of the temple deliver to me, which I have given to you. Behold, I have secured it by contract from them."
    Lo, they were satisfied with it.
    Fourth contract
 
  khar: XAr, "sack", until the New Kingdom 10 heqat, about 50 litres
  uhet: wHa.t
    Contract, which the count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi, triumphant, made with the [keeper of the wardrobe (?)] of the temple, concerning:
    Three [wicks (?)] with which the fire is kindled for the god.
    While he (the count) has given to him (the keeper) for it: 3 temple-days. Now, these 3 temple-days shall be due to every future [keeper of the wardrobe (?)], because these 3 [wicks (?)] are due to him (the count).
    1. Lo, he spake to him, saying: "One of them shall be given to my mortuary priest, when he goes forth, kindling the fire with it for the god, on the fifth of the 5 intercalary days, New Year's night, by the [keeper of the wardrobe (?)]. He shall [deliver (?)]it to my mortuary priest after he does that which he does with it in the temple."
    2. "He shall give another on New Year's Day, in the morning, when the house makes gifts to its lord, when the lay priests of the temple give to me this white bread, which they give to me per individual priest, on New Year's Day. It shall be due from my mortuary priest at my glorification."
    3. "He shall give another in the first month of the first season on the eighteenth day, the day of the Wag-feast, at the same time with the white bread, which they give to me per individual priest. This [wick (?)] shall be due from my mortuary priest when glorifying me, together with the lay priests."
    Lo, he said to him:
    "Behold, as for a temple-day, it is 1/360 of a year. When ye therefore divide everything that comes into the temple, consisting of bread, beer, and everything for each day, that which makes 1/360 of the bread, of the beer, and of everything which comes into this temple, is the unit in these temple-days which I have given to thee. Behold, it is my property, of my paternal estate, but not of the count's estate."
    "Now, these 3 temple-days shall belong to every future [keeper of the wardrobe (?)], because these 3 [wicks (?)] are due to him, which thou hast given to me for these 3 temple-days, which I have given to thee."
    Lo, he was satisfied with it.
    Fifth contract
 
  house: the per, i.e. the domain, or rather its inhabitants
    Contract which the count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi, triumphant, made with the superior prophet of Upwawet, concerning: The roast of meat which is due upon the altar, which is placed upon the oblation-table, for every bull which is slaughtered in the temple.
    And one (sTA)-jar for (every) (ds)-jar of beer every day of a procession; which shall be due to every future superior prophet.
    He (the count) hath given him (the superior prophet) for it, 2 temple-days from his property, of his paternal estate, but not from the property of the count's estate.
    Lo, the count Hepzefi spake, saying: "When this roast of meat and this (sTA)-jar of beer come for every day of a procession, they are due to my statue, (which is) in charge of my mortuary priest."
    Lo, he was satisfied therewith, in the presence of the official body of the temple.
    Sixth contract
    Contract which the count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi, triumphant, made, with the great (wab)-priest of Anubis, concerning:
    Three [wicks (?)] due to him, with which the fire is kindled in the temple of Anubis:
    One on the fifth of the 5 intercalary days, the New Year's night.
    Another on New Year's Day.
    Another in the first month of the first season, on the seventeenth day, the night of the Wag-feast.
    He hath given to him for it: 1,000 (HA.t)-measures of land in [/// ///] from the fields of his father, as compensation for these 3 [wicks (?)], which he gives to my mortuary priest, in order to kindle the light for me therewith.
    Lo, he was satisfied therewith.
    Seventh contract
 
  HA.t: square measure, AH.t, "field"
    Contract which the count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi, triumphant, made, with the lay priests of the temple of Anubis; to wit:
    There shall be given to him:
    (a) A white loaf per each individual among them, for his statue, in the first month of the first season, on the seventeenth day, the night of the Wag-feast.
    (b) And that they shall go forth, following his mortuary priest, and kindle for him (the count), the fire at his glorification, until they reach the lower steps of his tomb, Just as they glorify their noble ones, on the day of kindling the fire.
    (c) And that the priest belonging in each month shall give [///] of bread (paq) and a jar of beer for his statue, which is on the lower steps of his tomb, when he comes forth from offering in the temple every day.
    He hath given to them for it: grain from the first of the harvest of every field of the count's estate, as every citizen of Siut does from the first of his harvest. Now, behold, he begins with having his every peasant give it from the first of his field into the temple of Anubis.
    Lo, the count, Hepzefi, said: "Behold, ye know, that, as for every official and every citizen, who gives the first of his harvest into the temple, it is not agreeable to him, that there should be lack therein. Therefore shall no future count diminish to future priests that which is secured by contract of another count."
    This grain shall belong to the lay priests, per each individual priest who shall give me this white bread, each by himself.
    Lo, they were satisfied therewith.
    Eighth contract
    Contract which the count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi, triumphant, made with the overseer of the necropolis, and with the mountaineers, to-wit:
    There shall be given:
    (a) That they go to the house of Anubis, on the fifth of the 5 intercalary days, (being) New Year's night, and on New Year's Day, to receive 2 [wicks (?)] which the great priest (wab) of Anubis gives to the count, Hepzefi.
    (b) And that they go, at his glorification, until they reach his tomb.
    (c) And that they give this one [wick (?)] to his mortuary priest, after they glorify him, just as they glorify their noble ones.
    He hath given to them for it:
    (a) 2,200 (HAt-) measures of land in the [///] from his property of the paternal estate, but not of the count's estate:
Register of NamesHAt-measures
Overseer of the Necropolis400
Chief of the Highland200
Eight mountaineers1600
    (b) Besides giving to them the foot of the leg of every bull, that shall be slaughtered upon this highland, in every temple.
    They have given to him:
    The Overseer of the Necropolis, 2 {ds-) jars of beer; 100 flat loaves, 10 white loaves.
    The Chief of the Highland, 1 (ds-) jar of beer; 50 flat loaves; 5 white loaves.
    Eight mountaineers, 8 (ds-) jars of beer; 400 flat loaves; 40 white loaves.
    For his statue, (which is) in charge of his mortuary priest, in the first month of the first season, on the first day, (being) New Year's Day, when they glorify him.
    Lo, he said to them: "Behold, these (HAt)-measures of land, which I have given to [you (?)], shall belong to every overseer of the necropolis, to every chief of the highland, and to every mountaineer who shall come (hereafter), because they shall deliver to me this bread and beer."
    And ye shall be behind [my] statue which is in my garden, following it when /////////, at every feast of the beginning of a season, which is celebrated in this temple."
    Lo, they were satisfied therewith.
    Ninth contract
 
  mountaineers: lit. those who are upon the mountain (Breasted)
    Contract which the count, the superior prophet, Hepzefi, made, with the overseer of the highland, to-wit:
    There shall be given to him 1 {hbn.t-) jar of beer, 1 large (///rrt-) loaf, 500 flat loaves, and 10 white loaves, for his statue, (which is) in charge of his mortuary priest, in the first month of the first season, on the seventeenth day, the night of the Wag-feast.
    He hath given to him for it:
    (a) 1,000 (HAt-) measures of land in [///] from his property of his paternal estate, but not from the property of the count's estate.
    (b) And a quarter of every bull that is slaughtered on this highland in every temple.
    Lo, he said to the overseer of the highland: "Behold, these (HAt-)measures of land shall belong to every future overseer of the highland, because he delivers to me this bread and beer."
    Lo, he was satisfied therewith.
The contracts of Hepzefi
James Henry Breasted Ancient Records of Egypt Part One 539ff
 
    Tenth contract
ContractDateOccasionOffering or service contributedGiverRecipient
EighthEvery dayEvery day after daily offering in temple of AnubisLoaf and jar of beerLay priests of AnubisStatue of Hepzefi on lower stairs of his tomb
SixthProbably the 1st and 15th of each month and minor feastsProcession, offerings, slaughtering of bulls1 roast of meat for each bull slaughtered in Upwawet temple. 1 measure of beer for every jar offered in Upwawet temple.Superior prophet of UpwawetHepzefi
    The daily offerings were modest: a loaf of bread and a jar of beer, the basic fare of the average Egyptian. This simple task was performed by the lowest ranked clerics, the lay wab-priests.
    The occasions for the much more substantial offerings of meat and for the processions are somewhat speculative: beginning and middle of each month and other lesser holy days. They were important enough for the superior prophet of the Wepwawet temple himself to be involved.
 
    The five intercalary epagomenes did not belong to the orderly world of the other 360 days which were grouped into 12 months of 30 days. They were often considered to be inauspicious and were assigned as birthdays to the Osirian family of gods: Osiris, Horus, Seth, Isis and Nephthys.
First1st of the 5 intercalary daysProcession of Upwawet to temple of AnubisOne white loaf per manEach priest of the Upwawet templeStatue of Hepzefi in temple of Anubis
Fifth5th day of 5 intercalary daysNew Year's EveBale of torchesKeeper of wardrobe of Upwawet templeHepzefi
Seventh5th of five intercalary daysNew Year's Eve: Illumination in Anubis templeBale of torchesGreat priest of AnubisHepzefi
Ninth5th of 5 intercalary daysNew Year's Eve; procession, illumination, glorificationFetching bale of torches from great priest of Anubis to give to mortuary priest of HepzefiOverseer of necropolis and his staff (10 men)Hepzefi
Ninth1st of 1st monthNew Year's Day; procession, illumination, glorificationFetching bale of torches from great priest of Anubis to give to mortuary priest of HepzefiOverseer of necropolis and his staff (10 men)Hepzefi
Ninth1st of 1st monthNew Year's Day11 jars of beer, 550 flat cakes, 55 white loavesOverseer of necropolis and his staff (10 men)Statue of Hepzefi in charge of his mortuary priest (in his tomb)
Seventh1st of 1st monthNew Year's Day; sameBale of torchesGreat priest of AnubisHepzefi
Fifth1st day of 1st monthNew Year's DayBale of torchesKeeper of wardrobe of Upwawet templeHepzefi
Second1st of 1st monthNew Year's Day, when "the house" gives gifts to its lord; illuminationOne white loaf per man; also procession to the "north corner of the temple"Each priest of the Upwawet templeStatue of Hepzefi in charge of his priest (in his tomb)
 
    The New Year celebrations began five days before the end of the old year, on the first of the five intercalary days with which the year ended. On this day we might have seen the priests of Upwawet in procession winding through the streets and bazaars of Siut, and issuing at last back of the town as they conducted their god to the temple of Anubis at the foot of the cemetery cliff. Here a bull was slaughtered for the visiting deity. Each of the priests carried in his hand a large conical white loaf of bread, and as they entered the court of the Anubis temple, each deposited his loaf at the base of Hepzefi's statue.
    Five days later, as the day declined, the overseer of the necropolis, followed by the nine men of his staff, climbed down from the cliffs, past man an open tomb-door which it was the duty of these men to guard, and entered the shades of the town below, now quite dark as it lay in the shadow of the lofty cliffs that overhung it. It is New Year's Eve, and in the twilight here and there the lights of the festival illumination begin to appear in doors and windows. As the men push on through the narrow streets in the outskirts of the town, they are suddenly confronted by the high enclosure wall of the temple of Anubis. Entering at the tall gate they e]inquire for the "great priest," who presently delivers to them a bale of torches. With these they return, slowly rising above the town as they climb the cliff again. As they look out over the dark roofs shrouded in deep shadows, they discover two isolated clusters of lights, one just below them, the other far out in the town like two twinkling islands of radiance in a sea of blackness which stretches away at their feet. They are the courts of the two temples, where the illumination is now in full progress. Hepzefi, their ancient lord, sleeping high above them in his cliff tomb, is, nevertheless, present yonder in the midst of the joy and festivity which fill the temple courts. Through the eyes of his statue rising above the multitude which now throngs those courts, he rejoices in the beauty of the bright colonnades, he revels, like his friends below, in the sense of prodigal plenty spread out before him, as he beholds the offering loaves arrayed at his feet, where he saw the priests depositing them; and his ears are filled with the roar of a thousand voices as the rejoicings of the assembled city, gathered in the temples to watch the old year die and to hail the new year, swell like the sound of the sea far over the dark roofs, till its dying tides reach the ears of our group of cemetery guards high up in the darkness of the cliffs as they stand silently looking out over the town.
    Just above is the great façade of the tomb where their departed lord, Hepzefi, lies. The older men of the party remember him well, and recall the generosity which they often enjoyed at his hands; but their juniors to whom he is but an empty name, respond but slowly and reluctantly to the admonitions of the grey-beards to hasten with the illumination of the tomb, as they hear the voice of Hepzefi's priest calling upon them from above to delay no longer. The sparks flash from the "friction-lighter" for an instant and then the first torch blazes up, from which the others are quickly kindled. The procession passes out around a vast promontory of the cliff and then turns in again to the tall tomb door where Hepzefi's priest stands waiting them, and without more delay they enter the great chapel. The flickering light of the torches falls fitfully upon the wall, where gigantic figures of the dead lord rise so high above from the floor that his head is lost in the gloom far above the waning light of the torches. He seems to admonish them to punctilious fulfillment of their duties towards him, as prescribed in the ten contracts recorded on the same wall. He is clad in splendid raiment, and he leans at ease upon his staff. Many a time the older men of the group have seen him standing so, delivering judgment as the culprits were dragged through the door of his busy bureau between a double line of obsequious bailiffs; or again watching the progress of an important irrigation canal which was to open some new field to cultivation. Involuntarily they drop in obeisance before his imposing figure, like the scribes and artisans, craftsmen and peasants who fill the walls before him, in gaily colored reliefs vividly portraying all the industries and pastimes of Hepzefi's great estates and forming a miniature world, where the departed noble, entering his chapel, beholds himself again moving among the scenes and pleasures of the provincial life in which he was so great a figure. To him the walls seem suddenly to have expanded to include harvest-field and busy bazaar, workshop and ship-yard, the hunting-marshes and the banquet-ball, with all of which the sculptor and the painter have peopled these walls till they are indeed alive.
    The torches are now planted around the offerings, thickly covering a large stone offering-table, behind which sits Hepzefi's statue in a niche in the wall; and then the little group slowly withdraws, casting many a furtive glance at a false door in the rear wall of the chapel, through which they know Hepzefi may at any moment issue from the shadow world behind it, to re-enter this world and to celebrate with his surviving friends the festivities of New Year's Eve.
    The next day, the first day of the new year, is the greatest feast-day in the calendar. There is joyful exchange of gifts, and the people of the estate appear with presents for the lord of the manor. Hepzefi's descendants are much absorbed in their own pleasure, but his cautious contracts, as still recorded in the town archives, ensure him from neglect. While the peasants and the lease holders of the barony are crowding the gates of the manor-house, bringing in their gifts to their living lord and thinking little, if at all, of his departed predecessor, we discover the little knot of ten necropolis guards, headed by their chief, again entering the outskirts of the town and proceeding to one of the treasuries of the estate where they are entitled to draw supplies. Presently they march away again, bearing five hundred and fifty flat cakes, fifty-five white loaves, and eleven jars of beer. Pushing their way slowly through the holiday crowds they retrace their steps to the entrance of the cemetery at the foot of the cliffs, where they find a large crowd already gathered, every one among them similarly laden. Amid much shouting and merry-making, amid innumerable picturesque scenes of oriental folk-life, such as are still common in the Mohammedan cemeteries of Egypt at the Feast of Bairam, the good towns-people of Siut carry their gifts of food and drink up the cliff to the numerous doors which honeycomb its face, that their dead may share the joyous feast with them. It is, indeed, the earliest Feast of All-Souls. The necropolis guards hasten up to Hepzefi's chapel with their supplies, which they quickly deliver to his priest, and are off again to preserve order among the merry crowds now everywhere pushing up the cliff.
 
    New Year's Day was one of the great religious occasion of the year. It was celebrated with light. On its eve cortèges of priests carried torches to Hepdjefi's shrine and the Anubis temple was illuminated. These torch-lit processions were continued on New Year's day involving all the temple's priests. The offerings brought to the statue of Hepdjefi were kept simple: bread, beer and cakes.
    As the day wears on there are busy preparations for the evening celebration, for the illumination, and the "glorification of the blessed," who are the dead. The necropolis guards, weary with a long day of arduous duty in the crowded cemetery, descend for the second time into the town to the temple of Upwawet. Here they find the entire priesthood of the temple waiting to receive them. At the head of the line the "great priest" delivers to the ten guards of the necropolis the torches for Hepzefi's "illumination." These are quickly kindled from those which the priests already carry, and the procession of guards and priests together moves slowly out of the temple court and across the sacred enclosure "to the northern corner of the temple," as the contract with Hepzefi prescribes, chanting the "glorification" of Hepzefi. As they go the priests carry each a large conical loaf of white bread, such as they had laid before the statue of Hepzefi in the temple of Anubis five days before.
    Arrived at the "northern corner of the temple," the priests turn back to their duties in the crowded sanctuary, doubtless handing over their loaves to the necropolis guards, for, as stipulated, these loaves were destined for the statue of Hepzefi in his tomb. Threading the brightly lighted streets of the town, the little procession of ten guards pushes its way with considerable difficulty through the throngs, passing at length the gate of the Anubis temple, where the illumination is in full progress and the statue of Hepzefi is not forgotten. As they emerge from the town again, still much hampered by the crowds likewise making their way in the same direction, the dark face of the cliff rising high above them, dotted here and there with tiny beacons moving slowly upward. These are the torches of the earlier townspeople, who have already reached the cemetery to plant them before the statues and burial-places of their dead. The guards climb to Hepzefi's tomb as they had done the night before and deliver torches and white bread to Hepzefi's waiting priest. Thus the dead noble shares in the festivities of the New Year's celebration as his children and former subjects were doing.
 
  glorification: The nature of this ceremony, which was performed by the living at the New Year's and other feasts, on behalf of their dead, while not clear in its details, must have been what its name technically defines it to have been. It means "the act of making glorious" and, as we have seen above, one of the epithets applied to the dead was "the glorious." It was therefore a ceremony for accomplishing the transformation of the deceased into a "glorious one," precisely as he was transformed also into a "soul" (ba) by an analogous ceremony performed by the living, a ceremony indeed which may have been much the same as that of glorification. (Breasted)

 
Seventh17th of 1st monthEve of Wag-feast; sameBale of torchesGreat priest of AnubisHepzefi
Eighth17th of 1st monthEve of Wag-feastOne white loaf per manLay priests of AnubisStatue of Hepzefi in temple of Anubis
Eighth17th of 1st monthEve of Wag-feastIllumination and procession to lower stairs of tombLay priests of AnubisStatue of Hepzefi in temple of Anubis
Tenth17th of 1st monthEve of Wag-feast1 jar beer, 500 flat cakes, 10 white loavesOverseer of the highland (where necropolis was)Statue of Hepzefi in charge of his mortuary priest (in his tomb)
Third18th of 1st monthFeast of Wag22 jars of beer; 2200 flat cakes; 55 white loavesOfficial body of Upwawet temple (10 persons)Hepzefi (in order to pay for bread, etc, received in contract 4)
Fourth18th of 1st monthFeast of WagOne white loaf per man
Procession, illumination, and glorification
Lay priesthood of Upwawet templeHepzefi
Fifth18th day of 1st monthFeast of WagBale of torchesKeeper of wardrobe of Upwawet templeHepzefi
 
    Seventeen days later, on the eve of the Wag-feast, the "great priest of Anubis" brought forth a bale of torches, and, heading his colleagues, they "illuminated" the statue of Hepzefi in the temple court, while each one of them at the same time laid a large white loaf at the feet of the statue. The procession then passed out of the temple enclosure and wound through the streets chanting the "glorification" of Hepzefi till they reached another statue of him which stood at the foot of the stairs leading up the cliff to his tomb. Here they found the chief of the desert patrol, or "overseer of the highland," where the necropolis was. Just returning from the magazines in the town, having brought a jar of beer, a large loaf, five hundred flat cakes, and ten white loaves to be delivered to Hepzefi's priest at the tomb above.
    The next day, the eighteenth of the first month, the day of the Wag-feast, the priests of Upwawet in the town each presented the usual large white loaf at Hepzefi's statue in their temple, followed by an "illumination" and "glorification" as they marched in procession around the temple court.

James Henry Breasted, Development of Religion and Thought in Ancient Egypt, pp. 265ff.


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