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The Hittite and Egyptian versions of the peace treaty concluded by Ramses II and Hattusili
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Pharaohs
Minmuaria: Menpekhtyre - Ramses I
Minpahiritaria: Menmaatre - Sethi I 1318-1304
Reamasesa: Ramses II 1304-1237
Mai-amana: Meriamen (Ramses II)

 
Hittite kings:
Seplel: Suppiluliuma 1370-1330
Merasar: Mursili I 1330-1305
Metella: Muwatalli 1305-1295
Khetasar: Hattusili III 1295

 
Hittite soldiers Hittite soldiers
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The peace treaty between Ramses II and Hattusili III

The Hittite version

 

The Egyptian version

Year 21, first month of the second season, twenty-first day, under the majesty of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt: Usermare-Setepnere, Son of Re: Ramses-Meriamon, given life, forever and ever, beloved of Amon-Re-Harakhte, Ptah-South-of-His-Wall, lord of "Life-of-the-Two-Lands," Mut, mistress of Ishru, and Khonsu-Neferhotep; shining upon the Horus-throne of the living, like his father, Harakhte, forever and ever.
On this day, lo, his majesty was at the city (called): "House-of-Ramses-Meriamon," performing the pleasing ceremonies of his father, Amon-Re-Harakhte-Atum, lord of the Two Lands of Heliopolis; Amon of Ramses-Meriamon, Ptah of Ramses-Meriamon, "/// great in strength, son of Mut," according as they gave to him eternity in jubilees, everlastingness in peaceful years, all lands, and all countries being prostrate beneath his sandals forever. There came the king's messenger, the deputy and butler ///, together with the king's messenger /// [bringing (?) to the king] Ramses II [the messenger (?)] of [Kheta, Ter]teseb and the [second messenger (?)] of Kheta [bearing (?) a silver tablet] which the great chief of the Kheta, Khetasar (xtAsrA) [caused] to be brought to Pharaoh, L. P. H., to crave peace [fro]m [the majesty] of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Ramses II, given life, forever and ever, like his father, Re, every day.
Copy of the silver tablet, which the great chief of Kheta, Khetasar (xtAsArA) caused to be brought to Pharaoh, L. P. H., by the hand of his messenger, Terteseb (tArAtysbw), and his messenger, Ramose, to crave peace from the majesty of Ramses II, the Bull of rulers, making his boundary as far as he desires in every land.
It is concluded that Reamasesa-Mai-amana , the Great King, the king (of the land of Egypt) with Hattusili, the Great King, the king of the land of Hatti, his brother, for the land of Egypt and the land of Hatti, in order to establish a good peace and a good fraternity forever among them.
 
Thus speaks Reamasesa, the Great King, the king of the land of Egypt, the hero of the whole country, son of Minmuaria, the great king, the king of the land of Egypt, the hero, son of the son of Minpahiritaria, the Great King, the king of the land of Egypt, the hero, to Hattusili, son of Mursili , the Great King, the king of the land of Hatti, the hero, son of the son of Suppiluliuma, the Great King, the king of the land of Hatti, the hero.
 
Look, I have established a good fraternity and a good peace now forever among us, in order to establish this way forever a good peace and a good fraternity between the land of Egypt and the land of Hatti.
The treaty which the great chief of Kheta, Khetasar, the valiant, the son of Merasar (mrAsArA), the great chief of Kheta, the valiant, the grandson, of Seplel (sApA[rwrw]), [the great chief of Kheta, the val]iant, made, upon a silver tablet for Usermare-Setepnere (Ramses II), the great ruler of Egypt, the valiant, the son of Menmare (Seti II, the great ruler of Egypt, The valiant, the grandson of Menpehtire (Ramses I), the great ruler of Egypt, the valiant; the good treaty of peace and of brotherhood, setting peace [between them (?)], forever.
Look, in what refers to the great king's relationship, the king of the country of Egypt, and of the great king, the king of the Hittite country, since eternity the gods don't allow, by reason of an eternal treaty, that the enmity exist among them.
Look, Reamasesa-Mai-amana, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, will establish the bond that the Sun God [Ra] has wanted and that the god of the Tempest [the great Hittite god] has wanted for the country of Egypt and the country of Hatti according to the eternal bond, for not letting enmity settle between them.
1. Now, at the beginning, since eternity, the relations of the great ruler of Egypt with the great chief of Kheta were (such) that the god prevented hostilities between them, by treaty. Whereas, in the time of Metella (mwTnrA), the great chief of Kheta, my brother, he fought w[ith Ramses II], the great ruler of Egypt, yet afterward, beginning with this day, behold, Khetasar, the great chief of Kheta, is [in] a treaty- relation for establishing the relations which the Re made, and which Sutekh made, for the land of Egypt, with the land of Kheta, in order not to permit hostilities to arise between them, forever.
But now Reamasesa-Mai-amana, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, has established this bond by treaty on a silver tablet with Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti, his brother, starting from this day, to settle forever among them a good peace and a good fraternity.
He is a brother to me and he is at peace with me; and I am a brother to him and I am forever at peace with him.
Look, we are united and a bond of fraternity already exists among us and of peace, and it is better than the bond of fraternity and of peace that existed between the country of Egypt and the country of Hatti.
2. Behold then, Khetasar, the great chief of Kheta, is in treaty relation with Usermare-Setepnere (Ramses II), the great ruler of Egypt, beginning with this day, in order to bring about good peace and good brotherhood between us forever, while he is in brotherhood with me, he is in peace with me; and I am in brotherhood with him, and I am in peace with him, forever. Since Metella (mwTnrA), the great chief of Kheta, my brother, succumbed to his fate, and Khetasar sat as great chief of Kheta upon the throne of his father, behold, I am together with Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, and he is [with me in (?)] our peace and our brotherhood. It is better than the former peace and brotherhood which were in the land.
Look, Reamasesa-Mai-amana, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, is at peace and fraternity with Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti. Behold, I, even the great chief of Kheta, am with [Ramses II], the great ruler of Egypt, in good peace and in good brotherhood.
Look, the children of Reamasesa, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, they will be forever in state of peace and of fraternity with the children of Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti. They will remain in the line of our bond of fraternity and of peace; the country of Egypt and the country of Hatti will be forever be in a state of peace and of fraternity as it is with us. The children of the children of the great chief of Kheta shall be in brotherhood and peace with the children of the children of Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, being in our relations of brotherhood and our relations [of peace], that the [land of Egypt] may be with the land of Kheta in peace and brotherhood like ourselves, forever.
Reamasesa-Mai-amana, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, shall never attack the country of Hatti to take possession of a part (of this country). And Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti, shall never attack the country of Egypt to take possession of a part (of that country). 3. There shall be no hostilities between them, forever. The great chief of Kheta shall not pass over into the land of Egypt, forever, to take anything therefrom. Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, shall not pass over into the land of Kheta, to take anything] therefrom, forever.
Look, the order fixed for eternity which the Sun God and the God of the Tempest have created for the country of Egypt and the country of Hatti, (that is) peace and fraternity without leaving place among them to any enmity. Look, Reamasesa-Mai-amana, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, has established peace starting from this day.
Look, the country of Egypt and the country of Hatti live forever in peace and fraternity.
4. As for the former treaty which was in the time of Seplel (sApArwrw), the great chief of Kheta, likewise the former treaty which was in the time of Metella (mwTnrA) the great chief of Kheta, my father, I will hold to it. Behold, Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, will hold [to it] with us [together (?)] beginning with this day. We will hold to it, and we will deal in this former manner.
If a foreign enemy marches against the country of Hatti and if Hattusili, the king of the country of Hatti, sends me this message: "Come to my help against him", Reamasesa-mai_Amana, the great king, the king of the Egyptian country, has to send his troops and his chariots to kill this enemy and to give satisfaction to the country of Hatti. 5. If another enemy come against the lands of Usermare-Setepnere (Ramses II), the great ruler of Egypt, and he shall send to the great chief of Kheta, saying; "Come with me as reinforcement against him," the great chief of Kheta shall [come], and the great chief of Kheta shall slay his enemy. But if it be not the desire of the great chief of Kheta to come, be shall send his infantry and his chariotry, and shall slay his enemy.
If Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti, rises in anger against his citizens after they have committed a crime against him and if, for this reason, you send to Reamasesa the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, then Reamasesa-Mai-amana has to send his troops and his chariots and these should exterminate all those that he has risen in anger against. 6. Or if Ramses-Meriamon, [the great ruler of Egypt], be provoked against [delinquent (?)] subjects, when they have committed some other fault against him, and he come to slay them, then the great chief of Kheta shall act with the lord of Egypt [/// ///].
If a foreigner marches against the country of Egypt and if Reamasesa-Mai-amana, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, your brother, sends to Hattusili, the king of the country of Hatti, his brother, the following message: "Come to my help against him", then Hattusili, king of the country of Hatti, shall send his troops and his chariots and kill my enemy. 7. If another en[emy come] against the great chief of Kheta, [and he shall send] to the great chief (sic!) [of Egypt], Usermare-Setepnere [for reinforcements (?) then he] shall come to him as reinforcement, to slay his enemy. But if it be [not] the desire of Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, to come, he shall [send his infantry and his chariotry [and shall slay his enemy (?)]. [Or] ////// /// seeing them, besides returning answer to the land of Kheta.
If Reamasesa, king of the country of Egypt, rises in anger against his citizens after they have committed a wrong against him and by reason of this he sends (a message) to Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti, my brother, has to send his troops and his chariots and they have to exterminate all those against, and I shall ....
Look, the son of Hattusili, king of the country of Hatti, has to assure his sovereignty of the country of Hatti instead of Hattusili, his father, after the numerous years of Hattusili, king of the country of Hatti. If the children of the country of Hatti transgress against him, then Reamasesa has to send to his help troops and chariots and to give him support.
8. Now if subjects of the great chief of Kheta transgress against him, and Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, shall /////// the land of Kheta and the land of Egypt ///////, that is to say; "I will come after [their punishment (?)] to Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, living forever, /// /// /// the land of Kheta. ...... ......... their appointing him for them, to be lord, to cause that Usermare-Setepnere, the great ruler of Egypt, shall be silent from his speech forever. If he /// his /// /// the land of Kheta, and he shall turn back [again to (?)] the great chief of Kheta ////////.
If a great person flees from the country of Hatti and if he comes to Reamasesa, the great king, king of the country of Egypt, then Reamasesa, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, has to take hold of him and deliver him into hands of Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti.
 
9. [If any great man of the land of Egypt shall flee and shall come to] the great chief of Kheta, from either a town [or] /// of the lands of Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, and they shall come to the great chief of Kheta, then the great chief of Kheta shall not receive them, (but) the great chief of Kheta shall cause them to be brought to Usermare-Setepnere, the great ruler of Egypt, [their] lord therefor.
If a man or two men who are unknown flee, and if they come to Reamasesa, to serve him, then Reamasesa has to take hold of them and deliver them into the hands of Hattusili, king of the country of Hatti.
 
10. Or if there flee a man, or two men who are unknown ///, and they shall come to the land of Kheta, to become foreign subjects, then they shall not be settled in the land of Kheta, but they shall be brought to Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt,
If a great person flees from the country of Egypt and he escapes to the country of Amurru or a city and he comes to the king of Amurru, then Benteshina, king of the country of Amurru, has to take hold of him and take him to the king of the country of Hatti ; and Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti, shall have him to be taken to Reamasesa, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt.
 
11. Or if any great man shall flee from the land of Kheta, [and he shall come to] Usermare-Setepnere, the great ruler of Egypt, (from) either a town or a district, or [any region of] those belonging to the land of Kheta, and they shall come to Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, then Usermare-Setepnere, the great ruler of Egypt, shall not receive them, (but) Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, shall cause them to be brought to the great chief of Kheta. They shall not be settled.
If a man or two men who are unknown flee, and if they escape from the country of Egypt and if they don't want to serve him, then Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti, has to deliver them into his brother's hands and he shall not allow them to inhabit the country of Hatti.
 
12. Likewise, if there flee a man, or two, or three, [who are not] known, and they shall come to the land of Egypt, to become foreign subjects, then Usermare-Setepnere, the great ruler of Egypt, shall not settle them, (but) he shall cause them to be brought to the great chief of Kheta.
13. As for the words of this [contract (?)] of the great chief of Kheta, with Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler [of Egypt], written. upon this silver tablet; as for these words, a thousand gods of the male gods and of the female gods, of those of the land of Kheta, together with a thousand gods, of the male gods and of the female gods of those of the land of Egypt, they are with me as witnesses [to (?)] these words: the Sun-god, lord of the heavens, the Sun-god, of the city of Ernen (ArnnA), Sutekh, the lord of the heavens, Sutekh of Kheta, Sutekh of the city of Ernen, Sutekh of the city Zepyerened (DApwyArAndA), Sutekh of the city of Perek (pAyrAkA), Sutekh of the city of Khesesep (xjsAsApA), Sutekh of the city Seres (sArjsw), Sutekh of the city of Aleppo (xjrApA), Sutekh of the city of Rekhsen (rAxAsjnA) , Sutekh [of the city of ///], ////////, Sutekh of the city of Sekhpen (sAjxjpAjnA), Antheret (anTrAtj) of the land of Kheta, the god of Zeyethekhrer (DAjjATxjrrj), the god of Kerzet /// (kArDAjtA), the god of Kherpenteres (xrpAntjrjsA), the goddess of the city of Kerekhen /// n /// (kArxn///n/// ///), the goddess of [Khewek] (xwAk), the goddess of Zen/// (DAjn///), the god of Zen///wet (DAn///nwtj), the god of Serep (sArApA)~ the god of Khenbet (xnbAtA), the queen of the heavens, gods, lords of swearing, the goddess, the mistress of the soil, the mistress of swearing, Teskher (tAsAxrA), the mistress of the mountains, and the rivers of the land of Kheta, the gods of the land of Kezweden (kjDAwAdAnA), Amon, the Sun-god, Sutekh, the male gods and the female gods of the mountains and the rivers of the land of Egypt, of the heavens, the soil, the great sea, the wind, and the storms.
If a nobleman flees from the country of Hatti, or two men, and if they don't want to serve the king of Hatti, and if they flee from the Great King's country, the king of the land of Hatti, in order not to serve him, then Reamasesa has to take hold of them and order them be taken to Hattusili, the Great King, king of the land of Hatti, his brother, and he shall not allow them to reside in the country of Egypt.
If a nobleman or two flee from the country of Egypt and if they leave for the Land of Hatti, then Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti, has to take hold of them and make them be taken to Reamasesa, the Great King, the king of the country of Egypt, his brother.
 
If a man flees from the country of Hatti, or two men, or three men, and if they come to Reamasesa, the Great King, the king of the country of Egypt, his brother, then Reamasesa, the Great King, the king of the country of Egypt, has to take hold of them and to order them to be taken to Hattusili, his brother, since they are brothers. As for their crime, it should not be imputed; their tongue and their eyes are not to be pulled out; their ears and their feet are not to be cut off; their houses with their wives and their children are not to be destroyed. 16. If a man flee from the land of Egypt, or two or three, and come to the great chief of Kheta, the great chief of Kheta shall seize upon them, and shall cause them to be brought back to Usermare-Setepnere, the great ruler of Egypt. Now, as for the man who shall be brought (back) to Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, let not his crime be set up against him; let not his house be injured, nor his wives, nor his children, [let] him [not be killed], and let no injury be done to his eyes, to his ears, to his mouth, nor to his feet. Let not any crime be set up against him.
If a (man flees from the country of Reamasesa, the Great King, king of the country of Egypt), or two men, or three men, and if they come (to Hattusili, the Great King), the king of the country of Hatti, my brother, then Hattusili, the Great King, king of the country of Hatti, my brother, has to take hold of them and to order them to be taken to Reamasesa, the Great King, the king of the country of Egypt, because Reamasesa, the Great King, king of the country of Egypt, and Hattusili are brothers. As for their crime, it should not be imputed; their tongue and their eyes are not to be pulled out; their ears and their feet are not to cut off; their houses with their wives and their children are not to be destroyed. 17. Likewise if a man flee from the land of Kheta, be it one, be it two, (or) be it three, and they shall come to Usermare-Setepnere, the great ruler of Egypt, let Ramses-Meriamon, the great ruler of Egypt, seize [upon them, and let him cause] that they be brought to the great chief of Kheta; and the great chief of Kheta shall not set up their crime against them; let not his house be injured, nor his wives, nor his children, let him not be killed, and let no injury be done to his ears, to his eyes, to his mouth, nor to his feet. Let not any crime be set up against him.
If a man flees from the country of Hatti, or two people, and if they flee from the country of Hatti, and if they come to the country of Egypt, and if a nobleman flees from the country of Hatti or of a city and they flee from the country of Hatti to go to the country of Egypt, then Reamasesa has to order them to be taken to his brother. Look, the sons of the country of Hatti and the children of the country of Egypt are at peace.
If some people flee from the country of Egypt to go to the country of Hatti, then Hattusili, the great king, the king of the country of Hatti, has to order them to be taken to his brother. Look, Hattusili the great king, the king of the country of Hatti, and Reamasesa, the great king, the king of the country of Egypt, your brother, are at peace.
If Reamasesa and the children of the country of Egypt don't observe this treaty, then the gods and the goddesses of the country of Egypt and the gods and goddesses of the country of Hatti shall exterminate the descendants of Reamasesa, the Great King, the king of the country of Egypt.
If Reamasesa and the children of the country of Egypt observe this treaty, then the gods of the oath shall protect them and their [...]
They who observe the words that are in the silver tablet the great gods of the country of Egypt and the great gods of the country of Hatti shall allow them to live and prosper in their houses, their country and with their servants.
They who do not observe the words that are in this silver tablet , the great gods of the country of Egypt as well as the great gods of the country of Hatti will exterminate their houses, their country and their servants.
14. Now, these words, which are upon this silver tablet, are for the land of Kheta and for the land of Egypt. As for him who shall not keep them, the thousand gods of the land of Kheta, and the thousand gods of the land of Egypt shall desolate his house, his land, and his subjects.
15. Now as for him who shall keep these words, which are upon this silver tablet, whether they be of Kheta, or whether they be people of Egypt, and they shall not devise (aught) against them; the thousand gods of the land of Kheta, together with the thousand gods of the land of Egypt, shall preserve his health, and his life, together with his issue, with his land, and his subjects.
18. That which is in the middle of this silver tablet: on its front side is a figure in the likeness of Sutekh embracing the likeness of the great chief of Kheta, surrounded by the following [words (?)]: "The seal of Sutekh, the ruler of the heavens; the seal of the treaty which Khetasar, the great chief of Kheta, the valiant, the son of Merasar (mrAsArA) the valiant, the great chief of Kheta, the valiant, made." That which is in the midst of the surrounding design is the seal [of Sutekh, the ruler of the heavens]. [That which is [in the middle on] its other side is a figure, in the likeness of [///] of Kheta, embracing the figure of the princess of Kheta, surrounded by the following words: "The seal of the Sun-god of the city of Ernen (ArnnA), the lord of the land; the seal of Petkhep (pw-tw-xjpA), the princess of the land of Kheta, the daughter of the land of Kezweden (qjDAwAdn), the /// /// /// of Ernen, the mistress of the land, the votress of the goddess. That which is in the midst of the surrounding design is the seal of the Sun-god of Ernen, the lord of every land."
J. H. Breasted, Ancient Records of Egypt, Part Three, §§370ff.

 

    This treaty is similar in form to many others discovered. The treaty between King Mursili and the king of Amurru, Duppi-Teshub [1], begins with the words
Thus speaks His Majesty Mursili, Great King, king of the Land of Hatti, beloved of the Storm God, son of Suppiluliuma, Great King, king of the land of Hatti, hero.
    The treaty stipulates, that Amurru forces shall fight in the Hittite army, that the Hittites shall give military assistance to Amurru and be provided with food by the king of Amurru, that anti-Hittite movements shall be suppressed, that Hittite fugitives shall be returned and safe passage for refuge seekers in Hatti shall be given.
 
    It ends with
If Duppi-Teshub does not keep these words of the obligation and of the oath, may these divine oaths destroy Duppi-Teshub, his wife, his son, his grandson, his house, his city and everything belonging to him.
 
If Duppi-Teshub keeps these words, may these divine oaths keep you.
    Eighty gods and goddesses from Amurru and Hatti are invoked to witness this treaty.

    Not every king could call himself brother or Great King, without angering Hattusili. When the king of Assyria did so, the Hittite asked

And why should I write to you about brotherhood? Were you and I born of the same mother? Do not write about brotherhood and Great Kingship to me.
    The Egyptians were not less proud. According to them this treaty was the result of the Hittites begging for peace
Copy of the tablet of silver which the great chief of Hatti, Hattusili, caused to be brought to Pharaoh by the hand of his messenger Tartesub and his messenger Ramose, in order to beg peace from the Majesty [of User-maat-re Setepenre], son of Re, Ramesse-meri-Amun, bull of rulers, who makes his boundary where he will in every land.
 

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