Herodotus on Shabaka
Herodotus on Shabaka
The Ethiopian Piye, brother of Shabaka, exploited the lack of unity among the Meshwesh chiefs, who had carved out little domains for themselves in the Delta, and conquered Lower Egypt (716 BCE). One of the Meshwesh, Tefnakht (Anysis?), hid in the marshes, but returned and founded the the 24th dynasty after Piye had moved South again.
Shabaka (711-697 BCE), who followed Piye reunited Upper and Lower Egypt , after defeating the local kings, among them Wahkare Bakenrenef of Sais, who had followed Tefnakht. Bakenrenef was Manetho's Bocchoris.
Shabaka's reign thereafter was mainly peaceful. He was followed by Shebitku, Herodotus' Sethos.
The Ethiopian rule lasted for 60 years, from 716 to 656 BCE. Herodotus assigned Sabacos alone a 50 year reign, which may be based on his misunderstanding the facts. According to Manetho the 25th dynasty included only three pharaohs, Sabacon, Sebichos and Taracos.
The Kushite kings were strong supporters of the cult of Amen-Re and its priesthood.
Egyptian cities were built on ground naturally elevated above the flood plain and as long as they were inhabited, they continued to rise. When a house had to be rebuilt, the debris of the former habitation was simply levelled and the new house built on top. Places which stopped being inhabited decayed and grew level with the flood plain, which also continued to rise due to the silt deposits of the Nile. Temples on the other hand were not raised in this fashion. Built of stone, they did not decay as easily as adobe buildings and did not have to be reconstructed. Many of them ended up being flooded and collapsing, when their foundations crumbled.
... Sabacos the king of the Ethiopians marched upon
Egypt with a great host of men; so this blind man [Anysis] departed, flying to
the fen-country, and the Ethiopian was king over Egypt for fifty
years, during which he performed deeds as follows.
Whenever any man
of the Egyptians committed any transgression, he would never put him
to death, but he gave sentence upon each man according to the
greatness of the wrong-doing, appointing them to work at throwing up
an embankment before that city from whence each man came of those who
committed wrong. Thus the cities were made higher still than before;
for they were embanked first by those who dug the channels in the
reign of Sesostris, and then secondly in the reign of the Ethiopian,
and thus they were made very high: and while other cities in Egypt
also stood high, I think in the town at Bubastis especially the earth
was piled up.
In this city there is a temple very well worthy of
mention, for though there are other temples which are larger and build
with more cost, none more than this is a pleasure to the eyes. Now
Bubastis in the Hellenic tongue is Artemis, and her temple is ordered
Except the entrance it is completely surrounded by water; for
channels come in from the Nile, not joining one another, but each
extending as far as the entrance of the temple, one flowing round on
the one side and the other on the other side, each a hundred feet
broad and shaded over with trees; and the gateway has a height of ten
fathoms, and it is adorned with figures six cubits high, very
This temple is in the middle of the city and is looked
down upon from all sides as one goes round, for since the city has
been banked up to a height, while the temple has not been moved from
the place where it was at the first built, it is possible to look down
into it: and round it runs a stone wall with figures carved upon it,
while within it there is a grove of very large trees planted round a
large temple-house, within which is the image of the goddess: and the
breadth and length of the temple is a furlong every way.
entrance there is a road paved with stone for about three furlongs,
which leads through the market-place towards the East, with a breadth
of about four hundred feet; and on this side and on that grow trees of
height reaching to heaven: and the road leads to the temple of Hermes.
This temple then is thus ordered.
The final deliverance from the Ethiopian came about (they said) as
follows:--he fled away because he had seen in his sleep a vision, in
which it seemed to him that a man came and stood by him and counselled
him to gather together all the priests in Egypt and cut them asunder
in the midst. Having seen this dream, he said that it seemed to him
that the gods were foreshowing him this to furnish an occasion against
him, in order that he might do an impious deed with respect to
religion, and so receive some evil either from the gods or from men:
he would not however do so, but in truth (he said) the time had
expired, during which it had been prophesied to him that he should
rule Egypt before he departed thence. For when he was in Ethiopia the
Oracles which the Ethiopians consult had told him that it was fated
for him to rule Egypt fifty years: since then this time was now
expiring, and the vision of the dream also disturbed him, Sabacos
departed out of Egypt of his own free will.
Herodotus Histories 2.137