Ancient Egypt: History and culture
Chronological list of ancient Egyptian kingdoms, dynasties and pharaohs.
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The Narmer palette
The Narmer Palette
3100 BC


3rd Dynasty


The Gizeh pyramids
Pyramids at Giza
4th Dynasty




Faience hippo
20th century BC

Senusret III
Sesostris III (Senusret)
12th Dynasty










King Tutankhamun
18th Dynasty

Ramses II
Ramses II
19th Dynasty


Psusennes I
(Pasebakhaennuit I)
21st dynasty









8th century BC


Reign of Psammetic II




Akhet Internet: Faces of the Dead
Ptolemaic Funeral Mask
Source: Akhet Egyptology


This list is incomplete. Pharaohs are missing or have been left out above all in the lists of the Early and the intermediate Periods. All the dates until the Late Period should be taken with a grain of salt, some think a good deal more than just a grain.
But we seem to be on the road to better estimates. According to research done by Michael Dee and others of the Research Laboratory for Archaeology of Oxford University in 2013 using carbon dating, the accession to the throne of Pharaoh Aha should, with a probability of 68 percent, be dated to a time between 3111 and 3045.

Predynastic Period c.3500-3100 BCE
Early Dynastic Period c.3100-2686 BCE
- - 'Scorpion'
1st Dynasty c.3100-2890 BCE
Menes (Hor-Aha)
Wadj (Djet)
2nd Dynasty c.2890-2686 BCE
Old Kingdom c.2686-2181 BCE
3rd Dynasty c.2686-2613 BCE
Sanakhte (Nebka)  (c.2688-2668)
Djoser (Netjerikhet)  (c.2668-2649)
Sekhemkhet (Djoser Teti) (c.2649-2641)
Khaba (c.2641-2637)
Huni (c.2637-2613)
4th Dynasty c.2613-2494 BCE
Snofru   (c.2613-2589)
Khufu (Cheops)   (c.2585-2566)
Djedefre (c.2566-2558)
Khafre (Rekhaf)   (c.2558-2532)
Menkaure (Mykerinos) (c.2532-2514)
Shepseskaf (c.2514-2494)
5th Dynasty c.2494-2345 BCE
Userkaf (c.2494-2487)
Sahure (c.2487-2475)
Neferirkare Userkhau (c.2475-2455)
Shepseskare (c.2455-2448)
Raneferef (c.2448-2445)
Niuserre (c.2445-2421)
Menkauhor (c.2421-2413)
Djedkare (c.2413-2381)
Unas (Wenis) (c.2381-2345)
6th Dynasty c.2345-2181 BCE
Teti (c.2345-2313)
Pepi I Meryre (c.2313-2279)
Merenre (c.2279-2270)
Pepi II Neferkare (c.2279-2181)
First Intermediate Period c.2181-2040 BCE
7/8th Dynasty c.2181-2173 BCE
Qakare Iby
9/10th Dynasty c.2160-2040 BCE
Meryibre Kheti (Akhtoy) I
Nebkaure Kheti (Akhtoy) II
Wahkare Kheti (Akhtoy) III
11th Dynasty c.2133-1991 BCE
Intef I (Inyotef I) Sehertawy (c.2133-2123)
Intef II (Inyotef II) Wahankh (c.2123-2074)
Intef III (Inyotef III) Nakhtnebtepnefer (c.2074-2066)
Mentuhotep I ? (c.2066-2040)
Middle Kingdom c.2040-1786 BCE
11th Dynasty
Mentuhotep II Nebhepetre (c.2040-2010)
Mentuhotep III Sankhkare (c.2010-1998)
Mentuhotep IV Nebtawyre (c.1998-1991)
12th Dynasty c.1991-1786 BCE
Amenemhet I Sehetepibre (c.1991-1962)
Senusret I Kheperkare(c.1962-1917)
Amenemhet II Nubkaure (c.1917-1882)
Senusret II Khakhperre (c.1882-1878)
Senusret III Khakaure   (c.1878-1841)
Amenemhet III Nimaatre (c.1841-1796)
Amenemhet IV Maakherure (c.1796-1790)
Queen Sobeknerfu Neferusobek (c.1790-1786)
Second Intermediate Period c.1786-1567 BCE
13th Dynasty (about 70 kings) c.1786-1633 BCE
Wegaf Khawitawire (c.1783 - 1779)
Amenemhet V Sekhemkare
Harnedjheriotef Hetepibre
Sobekhotep I Khaankhre (ca.1750)
Amenemhet VII Sedjefakare
Sobekhotep II Sekhemre-Khutawy (ca.1745)
Sobekhotep III
Neferhotep I Khasekhemre (c.1723-1713)
Sobekhotep IV Merihotepre Khaneferre (c.1713)
Iaib (c.1713-1703)
Ay Merneferre (c.1703-1680)
Neferhotep II
and eight more kings
14th Dynasty c.1786-1603 BCE
15th Dynasty c.1674-1567 BCE
Hyksos kings
Semqen ? Aper-Anati ?
Khyan (Apachnan)
Apepi I (Apophis)
Apepi II (Khamudi?) (c.1542-1532)
16th Dynasty c.1684-1567 BCE
Hyksos kings
17th Dynasty c.1650-1567
Sobekemsaf I Sekhemre Wadjkhau
Sobekemsaf II
Intef VII
Tao I Seakhtenre
Tao II Sekenenre
Kamose Wadjkheperre
New Kingdom c.1570-1070 BCE
18th Dynasty c.1570-1293 BCE

Ahmose I Nebpehtyre   (c.1570-1546)
Amenhotep I Djeserkare (c.1546-1527)
Thutmose I Akheperkare (c.1527-1515)
Thutmose II Akheperenre (c.1515-1498)
Queen Hatshepsut Maatkare   (c.1498-1483)
Thutmose III Menkhepere   (c.1504-1450)
Amenhotep II Akheperure (c.1450-1412)
Thutmose IV Men-khepru-Re (1412-1402)
Amenhotep III Nebmaatre (c.1402-1364)
Amenhotep IV/Akhenaten Neferkheperure   (c.1350-1334)
Smenkhkare Ankhheperure (c.1334)
Tutankhamen Nebkheperoure   (c.1334-1325)
Ay Kheperkheperure (c.1325-1321)
Horemheb Djeserkheperure (c.1321-1293)
19th Dynasty c.1293-1185 BCE
Ramses I Menpehtyre  (c.1293-1291)
Seti I Merienptah Menmaatre   (c.1291-1278)
Ramses II Meriamen Usermaatre Setepenre   (c.1279-1212)
Merneptah Hetephermaat Baenre Meriamen   (c.1212-1202)
Amenmes Heqawaset Menmire Setepenre   (c.1202-1199)
Seti II Merenptah Userkheperure Setepenre (c.1199-1193)
Merneptah Siptah Sekhaenre/Akhenre (c.1193-1187)
Queen Twosret Setepenmut Sitre Meriamen (c.1187-1185)
20th Dynasty c.1185-1070 BCE
Sethnakhte Userkhaure Setepenre (c.1185-1182)
Ramses III Usermaatre Meriamen (c.1182-1151)
Ramses IV Usermaatre/Heqamaatre-Setepenamen (c.1151-1145)
Ramses V Usermaatre Sekheperenre (c.1145-1141)
Ramses VI Nebmaatre Meriamen (c.1141-1133)
Ramses VII Usermaatre Setepenre Meriamen (c.1133-1128)
Ramses VIII Usermaatre Akhenamen (c.1128-1126)
Ramses IX Neferkare Setepenre (c.1126-1108)
Ramses X Khepermaatre Setepenptah (c.1108-1098)
Ramses XI Menmaatre Setepenptah (c.1098-1070)
Third Intermediate Period c.1070-664 BCE
High Priests (Thebes)
Contemporaries of the 21st dynasty at Tanis
Herihor Siamun Hemnetjertepyenamun (c.1080-1074)
Piankh (c.1074-1070)
Pinedjem I Meriamen Khakheperre Setepenamun (c.1070-1032)
Masaherta (c.1054-1046)
Djedkhonsefankh (c.1046-1045)
Menkheperre (c.1045-992)
Smendes II (c.992-990)
Pinedjem II (c.990-969)
Psusennes (c.969-959)
21st Dynasty
c.1070-945 BCE
Nesbanebded Hedjkheperre Setepenre (Smendes I) (c.1070-1043)
Nephercheres (Neferkare-hekawise Amenemnisu Meramun (c.1043-1039)
Psusennes I Akheperre Setepenamun (c.1039-1000)
Amenemope Usimare Setepenamun (c.1000-991)
Osorkon the elder (Osochor) (c.991-985)
Psinaches (c.985-976)
Psusennes II Titkheprure (c.976-962)
Siamun Nutekheperre Setepenamun Siamun Meramun (c.962-945)
22nd Dynasty
c.945-730 BCE
Sheshonq I Hedjkheperre Setepenre (c.945-924)
Osorkon I Sekhemkheperre Setepenre (c.924?889)
Sheshonq II Hekakheperre Setepenre (ca. 890)
Takelot I Usimare (c.889?874)
Osorkon II Usimare Setepenamun (c.874?850)
Harsiese (ca. 865)
Takelot II Hedjkheperre Setepenre (c.850?825)
Sheshonq III Usimare Setepenamun (c.825?773)
Pamai (c.773?767)
Sheshonq V Akheperre (c.767?730)
Osorkon IV (c.730?712)
23rd Dynasty
c.817-730 BCE
Pedibastet Meriamen Usermaatre Setepenre(c.818?793)
Iuput I (ca. 800)
Sheshonq IV Usermaatre Meriamen (c.793?787)
Osorkon III Usermaatre Setepenamen (c.787?759)
Takelot III Usermaatre (c.764?757)
Rudamon Usermaatre Setepenamen (c.757?754)
Iuput II Meriamen sibastet Usermaatre (c.754?712)
Nimlot (ca. 740)
Peftjauabastet Nefer-ka-re (c.740?725)
Thutemhat (ca. 720)
Pedinemti (ca. 700)
24th Dynasty c.720-714 BCE
Shepsesre Tefnakht (c.724-717)
Wahkare Bakenrenef (c.717-712)
25th Dynasty 747-656 BCE
Piye Usimare Sneferre (Piankhi) (747-716)
Shabaka Neferkare Wahibre (716-702)
Shebitku Djedkaure Menkheperre (702-689)
Taharka Khunefertemr (689-663)
Tanutamun Bakare (663-656)
Late Dynastic Period 664-332 BCE
26th Dynasty 664-525 BCE
Necho I   (664-656)
Psammetic I Wahemibre Psamtek   (656-609)
Necho II Wahemibre Neko   (609-594)
Psammetic II Neferibre Psamtek   (594-587)
Wahibre (Haaibre) (Apries)   (587-569)
Ahmose II Khnemibre (Amasis)   (569-526)
Psammetic III Ankhkaenre   (526)
27th Dynasty 525-404 BCE
Cambyses II   (525-522)
Darius I   (521-486)
Xerxes   (486-465)
Artaxerxes I   (465-424)
Darius II   (423-405)
Artaxerxes II   (405-359)
28th Dynasty 404-399 BCE
Amenirdis (Amyrtaeus)  (404-399)
29th Dynasty 399-380 BCE
Nefaarud I (Nepherites I)   (399-393)
Psammuthis Userre Setepenptah Pasherienmut (ca. 392)
Hakor Khnemmaere Setpenkhnum (Achoris)  (392-380)
Nefaarud II (Nepherites II) (380)
30th Dynasty 380-343 BCE
Nakhtnebef Kheperkare (Nectanebo I)   (380-362)
Djedhor   (362-360)
Nekhtharehbe Snedjemibre Setpenanhur (Nectanebo II)   (360-343)
31st Dynasty 343-332 BCE
Artaxerxes III   (343-338)
Arses   (338-336)
Darius III   (336-332)
The Graeco-Roman Period
Macedonian Kings
Alexander the Great   (332-323)
Philip III Arrhidaeus   (323-317)
Alexander IV Aegus   (317-311)
Ptolemaic Dynasty 323-30 BCE
Ptolemy I Soter   (305-282)
Ptolemy II Philadelphus   (284-246)
Arsinoe II (278-270)
Ptolemy III Euergetes I   (246-222)
Bernice II (246-221)
Ptolemy IV Philopator   (222-205)
Ptolemy V Epiphanes   (205-180)
Harwennefer (205-199)
Ankhwennefer (199-186)
Cleopatra I (194-176)
Ptolemy VI Philometor   (180-164)
Cleopatra II (175-115)
Ptolemy VII Neos Philopator   (164-145)
Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II   (145)
Cleopatra III (142-101)
Ptolemy IX Soter II (116-80)
Ptolemy X Alexander I (107-88)
Ptolemy XI Alexander II (80)
Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos (80-51)
Queen Bernice IV (58-55)
Ptolemy XIII (51-47)
Queen Cleopatra VII (51-30)
Ptolemy XIV (47-44)
Ptolemy XV (44-30)


[1] "An absolute chronology for early Egypt using radiocarbon dating and Bayesian statistical modelling" accessed at on 7th September 2013


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- Alternate or mistaken spellings: dynasty: dinasti, dinasty - pharaoh - pharaohs: pharoh, pharoah, pharoas, pharoahs, pharaon, pharaons, pharao - khufu: chufu, cheops, kheops - khafre: chafre, chefren, khafre - menkaure: mykerinos - djoser: zoser - senusret: sesostris - ahmose: amosis - amenhotep: amenophis - thutmose: thuthmose, tutmose, tutmosis, tuthmose - ramses: ramesses, ramesis - tutankhamen: tutankhamun, tutanchamun - akhenaten: echnaton, achnaton, akhnaten, ekhnaten - cleopatra: kleopatra - ptolemy: ptolemi,ptolmis - sheshonk: sisak, sheshonk - tanutamun: tanutamen necho: necos, nekhau - psammetic: psamtik, psammetich, psammetichos - amyrtaeos: amyrtaios -